Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla

 

“Were we,” remarks B. A. Behrend, distinguished author and engineer, “to seize and to eliminate the results of Mr. Tesla’s work, the wheels of industry would cease to turn, our electric cars and trains would stop, our towns would be dark, and our mills would be dead and idle.”

Nikola Tesla portrait2Dr. Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) Dr. Nikola Tesla was born in Croatia, which at that time, lay within Austro-Hungary. Tesla was born “at the stroke of midnight” with lightning striking during a summer storm. He was born in Smijani, near Gospiae, Lika (the Krajina, a military district of Austro-Hungarian Empire, now in Croatia). At the moment of his birth, the midwife commented, “He’ll be a child of the storm,” to which his mother replier, “No, of light!” Tesla was baptized in the Old Slavonic Church rite. His Baptism Certificate reports that he was born on June 28th, (Julian calendar; July 10 in the Gregorian calendar), and Christened by the Sefb Orthodox priest, Toma Oklobd’ija. It is interesting to note that he was a Serbian, of Valachian descent.

Tesla was proud of his Croatian motherland and Serbian descent. When his mother died in 1892, he paid a visit to Croatian capital Zagreb, and gave a lecture about alternating current. On that occasion Tesla said: “As a son of my homeland, I feel it is my duty to help the city of Zagreb in every respect with my advice and work” – (“Smatram svojom duznoscu da kao rodeni sin svoje zemlje pomognem gradu Zagrebu u svakom pogledu savjetom i cinom”). Nikola Tesla, besides being a great inventor and an outspoken Serbian patriot, had sincerely adored free Serb states, Serbia and Montenegro. He had never hidden his patriotic feelings, on the contrary, he stressed them.

On June 1st 1892, Tesla arrived in Belgrade due to a call for assistance from the Belgrade municipality. Several thousand people were there to greet him at the Belgrade train station. He addressed the gathered crowd, who saluted him:

“There is something within me that might be illusion as it is often case with young delighted people, but if I would be fortunate to achieve some of my ideals, it would be on the behalf of the whole of humanity. If those hopes would become fulfilled, the most exiting thought would be that it is a deed of a Serb. Long live Serbdom!…”Tesla further said to the students of Belgrade University: “As you can see and hear, I have remained a Serb overseas where I have done some researches. You should do so and by your knowledge and hard work you should glorify Serbdom over the world.”

One of Tesla’s proudest moments was when he was granted his United States citizenship; he never lost his love of his homeland, however. His monument, carved by Ivan Mestrovic (who knew Tesla personally), can be seen in Zagreb. Another monument, carved by Croatian sculptor Frano Krsinic, can be seen on “Goat Island”, near the former Tesla Hydropower Plant on Niagara Falls, in the middle of the Niagara River, between the United States and Canada boarders. It is purposely left un-illuminated at night (for the effect, and, to provoke thought of what the world would be like without Tesla’s contributions). As I have personally visited this monument, it leaves one with an eerie feeling. One definitely feels a sense of sadness for Tesla, a man that quite literally created our modern electrical world, now with a simple statue staring out from an island in the middle of nowhere.

This picture to the right (click thumbnail for larger view) is from a visit I recently took to Niagara Falls on the 4th of July, 2005. Standing in front of this Frank Germano at Tesla memorial statuestatue left me with a feeling of awe. Just a statue, mind you, but, to state at the solumn expression on Tesla’s face, and then think of all he accomplished, it is just an amazing feeling. A part of the Technical Museum in Zagreb is dedicated to Nikola Tesla. Even today, so many years after Tesla’s death in 1943, his numerous manuscripts are still kept as “top secret” by the US Ministry of Defense (see Margaret Cheney, “Tesla: Man Out of Time”, Prentice Hall, 1981). This page, and the following series of pages are my tribute to Nikola Tesla. Tesla GAVE us our modern world. This is simply my way of “paying it forward,” in an attempt to give the reader a look at this amazing inventor, scientist, and engineer.

Nikola Tesla, an American inventor and engineer, whose mastery of electricity came at a time when electricity was changing American life. Tesla is the unsung hero and creator of the electric age, and, without whom, our radio, automobile ignition, telephone, alternating current power and transmission system, radio, television, flourescent lighting, none of it would have been possible. He discovered the rotating magnetic field, the basis of most modern alternating current machinery, and holds more than seven hundred patents. His inventions make him one of the most prolific and foremost pioneers in the distribution of electric energy.

Born into a family of Serbian origin, His father was Rev. Milutin Tesla, a priest in the Serb Orthodox Church Metropolitanate of Sremski Karlovci. His mother was Ðuka Mandic, herself a daughter of a Serbian Orthodox priest, who was talented in making home craft tools. His godfather, Jovan Drenovac, was a captain in the army protecting the Military Frontier. Tesla was one of five children, having one brother and three sisters. His one older brother, Dane, died when Nikola was five. In his autobiography ( “My Inventions” ), Tesla tells of the early workings of his mind in a description that we can only regard with amazement. He began seeing flashes of light that interfered with his physical vision. When a word was spoken, he would envision the object so clearly that he had trouble distinguishing between the imagined (spoken) object and the real. In later years, he would build a machine in his mind, run it to see where it was flawed, and make whatever repairs and adjustments were needed, before he ever began his construction. At night and in solitude, Tesla had an inner world of personal vision where he made journeys to distant places, studies, carried on conversations and met people that seemed as real to him as his outer world. By the time he was a teenager he spoke four languages. At about age 17, he found to his delight that he could create things in his mind, picturing them as the finished product without models, drawings or experiments. He invented such things as a low friction finless waterwheel and a motor driven by June bugs. Again from “My Inventions,” we learn that Tesla engaged in reading many works, as he stated, “At that age (24), I knew entire books by heart, word for word. One of these was Goethe’s Faust.”  The relevance of this statement and his familiarity with Goethe’s Faust will come into play further in this writing.

He trained to be an engineer, attending the Technical University at Graz, Austria and the University of Prague. Beginning his studies in physics and mathematics at Graz Polytechnic, he then took philosophy at the University of Prague. After finishing the studies at the Polytechnic Institute, doing two years of study in one, working 19 hours a day and sleeping only two, he suffered a complete nervous breakdown. During the malady, he observed many phenomena, both strange and unbelievable. His vision and hearing intensified beyond any normal human capacity. He could sense objects in the dark in the same way as a bat. It was a period in which his sensitivities were so heightened that the flashes of light that he had seen from the time he was a youth now filled the air around him with tongues of living flame. Their intensity, instead of diminishing, increased with time, and seemingly attained a maximum when he was about twenty-five years old. His responses were so keenly tuned that a word would become an image that he could feel see and taste. It was during this time that he had one of his most famous ideas; the rotating magnetic field and alternating current induction motor. Bringing himself back to the world as it is, Tesla began work as an electrical engineer with the Central Telegraph Office in Budapest, Hungary in 1881 and the following year, he went to work in Paris for the Continental Edison Company. In 1883 he constructed, after work hours, his first induction motor.

He sailed to America in 1884, arriving with four cents in his pocket. He found immediate employment with Thomas Edison – who quickly became a rival – Edison being an advocate of the inferior DC power transmission system. For the remainder of his life, Tesla would have, at times, difficulty getting his ideas and inventions funded because most financiers were in Edison’s corner. Even later in his life, many of his ideas and inventions could not get funding, and so remained in notebooks, which are still examined to this day, by engineers searching for clues from his brilliant scientific mind. Edison and Tesla parted company within a year due to a false promise made by Edison.

TESLA 3The story went like this; Tesla was told (by Edison) that if he could repair all of the faulty and broken down motors and generators in the Edison plant that he would receive $50,000.00 for his effort. This Tesla did, and in record time, no less. At the completion of the repair work, Tesla approached Edison for the monies that were promised, at which time Edison replied that he was only “joking” about the money. Tesla described the nature of the benefits from his proposed modifications, and reminded Edison that he had worked nearly a year to redesign them and that in doing so, gave the Edison company several enormously profitable new patents in the process. When Tesla inquired again about the $50,000, Edison replied to him, “Tesla, you don’t understand our American humor,” and reneged on his promise. Edison reportedly offered to raise Tesla’s salary by $10 per week as a compromise – at which rate it would have taken almost 100 years to earn the money Edison had originally promised. Tesla resigned on the spot. Tesla did not find it very amusing and left his employ for good.

Perhaps the lowest point in his life was in 1884-85 after he left Edison, and without recognition or a mentor, had to take manual labor to survive. He was digging ditches at $2.00 a day when he met Mr. A. K. Brown of the Western Union Telegraph Company who put up some of his own money and interested a friend in joining him in Tesla’s project. Shortly thereafter, Tesla was commissioned with the design of the AC generators installed at Niagara Falls.

Tesla and Edison have often been represented as rivals. They were rivals, to a certain extent, in the battle between the alternating and direct current in which Tesla championed the former. He won; the great power plants at Niagara Falls and elsewhere are founded on the Tesla system. Otherwise the two men were merely opposites. Edison had a genius for practical inventions immediately applicable. Tesla, whose inventions were far ahead of the time, aroused antagonisms which delayed the fruition of his ideas for years. However, great physicists like Kelvin and Crookes spoke of his inventions as marvelous. “Tesla,” said Professor A. E. Kennelly, of Harvard University, when the Edison medal was presented to the inventor, “set wheels going round all over the world. . . . What he showed was a revelation to science and art unto all time.”

In April 1887, he established his own laboratory, where he experimented with shadowgraphs similar to those involved in the discovery of x-rays. In 1888 his TESLA 5discovery that a magnetic field could be made to rotate if two coils at right angles are supplied with AC current 90 degrees out of phase made possible the invention of the AC induction motor. The major advantage of this motor being its brushless operation, which many at the time was believed impossible.

By 1890, Tesla was a young, striking and desirable bachelor.  Handsome, magnetic and elegant, he was the “catch” of New York society, yet remained unmarried and a misanthrope. He was wealthy, gifted, accomplished and recognized. He wore his clothes well and was quiet and modest. Many a designing matron with a marriageable daughter was eager to capture him for her salon. Social leaders and businessmen considered him a good contact and the intellectuals of his day found him an inspiration. However, Tesla proved to be impervious, an unattainable prize. Except at formal dinners he always dined alone, and never under any circumstances would he dine with a woman at a twosome dinner. At the Waldorf-Astoria and at the famous Delmonico’s restaurant,  he had picked out particular discrete tables, which were always reserved for him. In spite of all of the adulation that was heaped upon him, Tesla had but one desire – to continue his work. He lived the life of a celibate and a hermit. He enjoyed poetry and the opera and though he was not a drinker, he appreciated a glass of beer and advocated the limited consumption of liquor as an elixir of life.

To backtrack in time, slightly, in May 1885, George Westinghouse purchased the patents to his induction motor, his polyphase system of alternating-current dynamos, transformers and motors and made this the basis of the Westinghouse power system which still underlies the modern electrical power industry today. When Westinghouse found that they could not stay in business if they paid him his due of Twelve Million Dollars, Tesla tore up the contract. Tesla did this, quite simply, so people could have the benefit of financially attainable electricity. Tesla made his first million before he was 40, but gave up the royalties on his most profitable invention as a humanitarian gesture. As a result, Westinghouse remained in business (this action allowed Westinghouse and Tesla to complete their exhibit at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, and electrify the entire exhibit area with AC power, built, designed, and installed by Tesla – a feat remarkable, even by today’s standards considering the time frame allowed). This also prevented Tesla from becoming what would have at that time been – the world’s first billionaire. Yes, Tesla’s contracts with Westinghouse were of that much value. The true wealth that Tesla gave up that day, upon tearing up of those contracts, cannot be underestimated, nor valued appropriately – to say several hundreds of billions of dollars would still be an understatement.

The World’s Fair Exposition cannot be emphasized enough in what it accomplished for Tesla, and for the use of Alternating Current Electricity. At the 1893 World’s Fair, the World Columbian Exposition, in Chicago, Illinois, celebrating the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ first voyage to America, an international exposition was held, in which, for the first time, a building was devoted to electrical exhibits. It was a historic event and the beginning of a revolution as Tesla and Westinghouse introduced visitors to AC power by providing AC energy to illuminate the World Columbian Exposition. The public at large observed firsthand the qualities and abilities of AC power. All the exhibits were from commercial enterprises. Edison, Brush, Western Electric, and Westinghouse all had exhibits. General Electric Company (backed by Edison and J.P. Morgan) proposed to power the electric fair with direct current at the cost of one million dollars.

Westinghouse proposed, armed with Tesla’s AC system, to illuminate the exposition for half as muchTesla’s high-frequency high-voltage lighting produced more efficient light with less heat. A two-phase induction motor was driven by current from the main generators to power the system. Edison tried to prevent the use of his light bulbs with Tesla’s system. GE banned the use of Edison’s lamps in Westinghouse’s exhibits. Still, Westinghouse’s proposal was chosen over the inferior DC system to power the fair. Westinghouse displayed several polyphase systems. The exhibits included a switchboard, polyphase generators, step-up and step-down transformers, transmission line, commercial size induction motors, commercial size synchronous motors, and rotary direct current converters (one of which was operating a railway motor). The working-scale system allowed the public a view of a system of polyphase power which could transmit long distances. Meters and other auxiliary devices were also present.

Tesla displayed the first neon light tubes at the exposition, demonstrating his phosphorescent lighting powered without wires by high-frequency fields. Tesla’s lighting inventions exposed to high-frequency currents would bring the gases to incandescence. Tesla displayed the first practical phosphorescent lamps (a precursor to fluorescent lamps). His innovations in this type of light emission were not regularly patented. Also in the exhibits were Tesla’s demonstrations, most notably the “Egg of Columbus”. This device explains the principles of the rotating magnetic field and his induction motor. The Egg consisted of a polyphase field coil underneath a plate with a copper egg positioned over the top. When the sequence of the coils were energized, the magnetic field arrangement inductively created a rotation on the egg and made it stand up on end (appearing to resist gravity).

On August 25, 1893, Elisha Gray introduced Tesla for the delivery of a lecture on mechanical and electrical oscillators. Tesla explained his work for efficiently increasing the work at high frequency of reciprocation. As Electrical Congress members listened, Tesla delineated mechanisms which could produce oscillations of constant periods irrespective of the pressure applied and irrespective of frictional losses and loads. He explained the working means of producing constant period electric currents (not resorting to spark gaps or breaks) and how to produce these with reliable mechanisms. The Exposition’s illumination with electricity using Tesla’s and Westinghouse’s alternate current removed any doubt of the utility of the polyphase alternating current.

In his work with the rotary magnetic fields, Tesla devised the system for transmission of power over long distances. He partnered with George Westinghouse to commercialize this system. Experts announced proposals to harness the Niagara Falls for generating electricity. Against General Electric and Edison’s proposal, Tesla’s AC system won the international Niagara Falls Commission contract. The commission was led by Lord Kelvin and backed by entrepreneurs (such as J.P. Morgan, Lord Rothschild, and John Jacob Astor). Work began in 1893 on the Niagara Falls generation project and Tesla’s technology was applied to generate electromagnetic energy from the falls. Most doubted that the system would generate enough electricity to power industry in Buffalo. Tesla was sure it would work, saying that Niagara Falls had the ability to power the entire eastern coast of the United States. On November 16, 1896, the first transmission of electrical power between two cities was sent from Niagara Falls to industries in Buffalo from the first commercial two-phase power plants (known as hydroelectric generators) at the Edward Dean Adams Station.

The hydroelectric generators were built by Westinghouse Electric Corporation from Tesla’s AC system patent designs. Tesla’s system designs alleviated the limitations of the previous DC methods. The nameplates on the generators bear Tesla’s name. He also set the 60 hertz standard for North America. It took five years to complete the whole facility. With the financial backing of George Westinghouse, Tesla’s AC replaced DC, enormously extending the range and improving the safety and efficiency of power distribution. Tesla’s Niagara Falls system marked the end of Edison’s roadmap for electrical transmission. Eventually, Edison’s GE company converted to the AC system. Tesla’s contributions to the modern world are widely regarded as more important and long-lasting, by some, than those of his nemesis and one-time employer, Thomas Edison.

In 1915 he was severely disappointed when a report that he and Edison were to share the Nobel Prize proved erroneous. Tesla was the recipient of the Edison Medal in 1917, the highest honor that the American Institute of Electrical Engineers could bestow. When others claimed credit for the revolutionary ideas that came from his extraordinary mind, he did not contest them.

Impractical in financial matters, eccentric and compulsive, Tesla had few friends, but those included Mark Twain, John J. O’Neill and Francis Marion Crawford. He never married, and cited on at least one occasion that marriage wasn’t good for inventors. He was driven by compulsions and had a progressive germ phobia, washing his hands frequently and avoiding shaking hands and measuring the volume of his food before he ate it. He liked a fresh tablecloth with every meal. Always a fastidious dresser, Tesla wore new gloves weekly and a new tie daily. He maintained the same weight through his lifetime, 142 pounds, and always slept only four hours per night; lying down resting a total of six hours, but sleeping no more than four.

Famous writer/author Samuel Clemens (under the pseudonym Mark Twain) often visited Tesla’s laboratory at night. Tesla was very close to him and after Twain’s death he spoke about him as if he were alive. Mark Twain and Nikola Tesla were so close, one could easily write an entire book just about their close friendship, alone. Twain was fascinated by the enigmatic Tesla. I think Tesla simply enjoyed Twain’s wry candor and wit. The writer Mark Twain died in 1910, and his enigmatic novel “Mysterious pilgrim” was published six years later. In this novel, he told about an angel who left the heavens and came to Earth to a small Austrian village. There he met a group of boys and told them the secrets of the universe. If we recognize the little Austrian village as Smilyany and the figure of the Angel as Tesla, then an explanation of a very strange theory on human destiny and cosmology will appear. This theory, expressed in this short story, made it different from other stories of this writer (Mark Twain). The Angel tells about the source of all people’s troubles and misfortunes. It all comes from misunderstanding the true sense of each minuscule events. Each of these events defines the future and links the next series of events. As he considered it, people’s free will is an illusion, since all is predetermined and will come to a predictable result. This entirely coincides with Tesla’s idea of a man as an “automaton of cosmic forces” and it is brought out clearly by simple dramaturgic tools used by the brilliant writer, Marc Twain. Finally, before Angel left his friends, he let them in on the last magic secret, which would be terrible for them to know, i.e. secret of Non-Existence. He said that all is only a thought. There is nothing existent…”I am only a thought, a lonely thought, which travels along the empty space of the Universe.” It makes one seriously wonder if Twain’s highly acute writer instincts and his book were not based on his good friend, Nikola Tesla, after all. One can only guess, but I personally think the book was written based on Tesla. Clemens and Tesla…can you just imagine the conversations these two men must have had together?!

The Inventions

Nikola Tesla believed that alternating current was vastly superior to (Edison’s) direct current, but, the problem was the lack of a practical motor. Alternating current is practical because of the fact that it can be altered, or converted, to suit a variety of situations. For example, if the voltage is made quite high, then the current necessary for a specific level of power is very low. This low current then becomes very efficient when sending electrical power over very long wires. This is the reason why the power lines running across the countryside are of very high voltages. Tesla also worked with radio-frequency electromagnetic waves, and, despite the claims made by Marconi, actially DID invent the idea of Radio as we know it today. There are numerous patents which bear this out. Even today, many texts STILL credit Marconi with the invention of radio, despite the Supreme Court of the United States decision which oeverruled the Marconi patens, awarding it to Tesla! Unforrtunately, the decision came two years after Tesla’s own death. In working with radio waves, Tesla created the Tesla Coil, as a means to generate and receive this form of energy. Every time you start our car,the device that provides the spark to the spark plug is a unit either wholy, or in part, a Tesla Coil.

Tesla postulated the ability to locate objects in the air or in the ground by using radio waves. Today, we call it “RADAR”, and when used to peer into the human body, “MRI”. Tesla also created radio controlled devices., or “Teli-autonomotons”. His work with special gas filled lamps set the stage for the creation of fluorescent lighting, and neon lights.

Tesla patented dozens of devices ranging from speedometers to extremely efficient electrical generators. One unique device was his Tesla Turbine or bladeless boundary disk turbine Tesla Turbine GeneratorInstead of using fan-type blades, Tesla’s turbine utilized solid disks of metal, and relied on what is called the “boundary layer effect”. His turbine ran on either compressed air or steam or gasoline explosions, and was so efficient that a device held in the hand could produce well over 10 horsepower!

One of the largest turbines that Tesla designed pumped out 10,000 Horse-power, and was about one fifth the size and weight of the engines of its day. Today, this bladeless technology is being used in a special type of non-clogging pump designed for the oil industry.

The turbine is awaiting commercial use, and public acceptance., but developments are rapidly making it again seem attractive. Frank Germano, Guy Letourneau, Tad Johnson and Martin Dorantes, of International Turbine And Power, of Cody Wyoming, USA, pioneered the design of a special Tesla-Type turbine for the commercial power markets as recently as 1999.

This turbine can be run on any combustible fuel (propane, methane, gasoline, diesel, hydrogen), steam, or even water under pressure. Currently, in 2006, a newer, far more efficient engine has been  design by Germano (with the new company – Global Energy Technologies, Inc.) based almost entirely on Tesla original bladeless disk turbine, and incorporating several advantageous features of implosion, and frequency/harmonic modulation pioneered by another contemporary inventor – Viktor Schauberger .

It has been said that Tesla is the “Forgotten Father of Technology.” It is hard to believe that a man who gave the world so much, received so little for his efforts. History books have been equally unkind. In many parts of this country, people still refer to the electric utility as the ‘Edison Company’, even though they use the Tesla-Westinghouse alternating current system, not Edison’s direct current. At the Niagara Falls power generating station, a small statue of Tesla is purposely left un-illuminated at night. I have visited this statue, and it is a quite stunning statement to witness the statue in complete darkness, with the surrounding area ablaze with lighting supplied from Tesla’s own inventions.

Tesla also had a deep desire to provide wireless electricity across the globe. First, there was the patent infringement issue, which made millionaires of others, particularly the Marconi Company. But Tesla maintained a single-minded focus on developing global wireless communications and energy systems. Working in Colorado Springs in 1899, Tesla developed a transmitter to perfect a method by which transmitted energy could be channeled through natural media. In Colorado Springs, Colorado, Tesla built a laboratory to develop this. The Colorado Springs lab contained the largest Tesla Coil ever built. Called the Magnifying Transmitter , it was capable of generating some 300,000 watts of power, and could produce a bolt of lightning over 130 feet long. According to local accounts, Tesla actually managed to successfully transmit about 30 to 50 thousand watts of power, without wires, using the Transmitter. There are detailed accounts of these feats, below.

Two years later, 1901, working on Long Island at Wardenclyffe, he set to work on his ultimate goal: construction of a “world telegraphy center” that was to have a lab, a wireless transmitter and production facilities for manufacturing oscillators and vacuum tubes. Constructed on the “model city’s” 1,800 acres would be tesla wardenclyffe stationhomes, stores and buildings to accommodate 2,500 workers… at least, that was the dream. By that year’s end, however, Marconi had usurped the inventor by transmitting an overseas signal. That left Tesla at the mercy of his financier, J.P. Morgan, who literally pulled the plug on his vision. Morgan, at the time the prime force behind General Electric Co., may have been unnerved by Tesla’s claims that the technology could transmit “unlimited power” by wireless means. The word “free” did not translate well to Morgan. Again, the money flow came to a halt.

Some Tesla devotees suspect he may have been a pioneer of the transistor. “Inventors of the modern computer have repeatedly been surprised, when seeking patents, to encounter Tesla’s basic ones already on file,” noted Tesla historian Leland Anderson, a former EE and a board member of the Wardenclyffe project. Indeed, two of Tesla’s patents from 1903 contain the basic principles of the logical “AND” circuit element. Tesla went on to experiment with actual wireless transmission of electrical power.

Despite his accomplishments, by 1915, at age 60, Tesla was living on credit and drifting from one cheap hotel another, a victim of his own poor business decisions, underdeveloped ideas and inability to create another innovation as profound as the AC paradigm. In 1931, at the age of 75, Tesla received birthday greetings from Lee de Forest and Albert Einstein. In his later years he spent most of his time at the New York Public Library or feeding pigeons that he called- “my sincere friends”.

Concerning Albert Einstein’s relativity theory, Tesla stated that ‘…the relativity theory, by the way, is much older than its present proponents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman Boskovic, the great philospher, who, not withstanding other and multifold obligations, wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects. Boskovic dealt with relativity, including the so-called time-space continuum…’, (1936 unpublished interview, quoted in Anderson, L, ed. Nikola Tesla: Lecture Before the New York Academy of Sciences: The Streams of Lenard and Roentgen and Novel Apparatus for Their Production, April 6, 1897, reconstructed 1994).

When he was eighty-one, Tesla stated he had completed a dynamic theory of gravity. He stated that it was “worked out in all details” and hoped to give to the world the theory soon. The theory was, unfortunately, never published. At the time of his announcement, it was considered by the scientific establishment to tesla wardenclyffe tower shotexceed the bounds of reason. While Tesla had “worked out a dynamic theory of gravity” that he soon hoped to give to the world, he died before he publicized any details. Few details were revealed by Tesla about his theory in the announcement. Tesla’s critique in the announcement was the opening clash between him and modern experimental physics. Tesla may have viewed his principles in such a manner as to not be in conflict with other modern theories (besides Einstein’s).

The bulk of the theory was developed between 1892 and 1894, during the period that he was conducting experiments with high frequency and high potential electromagnetism and patenting devices for their utilization. It was completed, according to Tesla, by the end of the 1930s. Tesla’s theory explained gravity using electrodynamics consisting of transverse waves (to a lesser extent) and longitudinal waves (for the majority). Tesla stated in 1925 that,

There is no thing endowed with life – from man, who is enslaving the elements, to the nimblest creature – in all this world that does not sway in it’s turn. Whenever action is born from force, though it be infinitesimal, the cosmic balance is upset and the universal motion results.”

Tesla was critical of Einstein’s (theory of) relativity work,

…[a] magnificent mathematical garb which fascinates, dazzles and makes people blind to the underlying errors. The theory is like a beggar clothed in purple whom ignorant people take for a king…., its exponents are brilliant men but they are metaphysicists rather than scientists… (New York Times, July 11, 1935, p23, c.8).
Tesla also stated that:

I hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.” (New York Hearald Tribune, September 11, 1932)

By 1943, he had begun suffering heart trouble and fainting spells along with some mental confusion. On January 1st, 1943 he complained of chest pains during an experiment and returned to the hotel room where he lived. The last person to see him alive was a hotel maid on January 5th, 1943. It is assumed that he died January 7th, 1943 in New York City and his body was discovered on the following day. Over 2,000 people attended his funeral in Manhattan. So, at age 86, the great inventor died alone, nearly penniless and all but forgotten. Years earlier, however, Tesla had appeared to predict the posthumous recognition that today’s scientific community would afford him when he wrote: “Let the future tell the truth, and evaluate each one according to his work and accomplishments.” And what accomplishments they were, Dr. Tesla. The world would be a very dark place, without you. For more startling insight into Dr. Tesla’s amazing accomplishments, see the companion article: Nikola Tesla And His Work With Alternating Currents. Continue with the pages in series by clicking on the “next” link, below.

I am now going to concentrate on Tesla and his Magnifying Transmitter in all of its historical relevance.

Tesla’s “Magnifying Transmitter”

Article: “The New York Times”…27 March, 1904

To gather in the latent electricity in the clouds and with the globe itself as a medium of transmission to convey telegraphic messages, power for commercial purposes, or even the sound of the human voice to the utmost confines of the earth is the latest dream of Nikola Tesla. In an article which appeared recently in The Electrical World Mr. Tesla explains the theories on which the world telegraphy system is founded and what he expects to accomplish by it.

World System PromoHis plans involve the establishment of stations for the transmission of messages and power, “preferably near important centers of civilization.” Oddly enough, what Mr. Tesla proudly designates as the first of his commercial “world telegraphy” stations has been established at Wardenclyffe, Shoreham, Long Island, New York, which is not in any sense an important “centre of civilization,” but a place described by train hands of the Long Island Railroad as a way station where “a passenger alights occasionally.”

Tesla’s “Magnifying Transmitter”, at Wardenclyffe, Shoreham, LI (New York). The transmitting station is an octagonal tower, pyramidal in shape, and some 187 feet in height. It consists of huge wooden stilts, heavily braced, and reinforced, and surmounted by a cupola of interlaced steel wires, bent so as to form an arc. In the cupola there is a wooden platform occupying its entire width. Mr. Tesla began work on his transmitting station about eighteen months ago. When he first came there, and it was understood that J. Pierpont Morgan had become interested in his odd enterprise and furnished him with financial assistance, a thrill of vague expectancy ran through the little settlement, The Wardenclyffe Land Company, which owns practically all the available ground in the vicinity, gave the inventor a free grant of some 175 acres of fine land, and then settled down to wait for the day when Wardenclyffe would become the centre of the universe.

Some of the farmers who come to Wardenclyffe to send their products to this city look at Mr. Tesla’s tower, which is situated directly opposite the railroad station, and shake their heads sadly. They are inclined to take a skeptical view regarding the feasibility of the wireless “world telegraphy” idea, but yet Tesla’s transmitting tower as it stands in lonely grandeur and boldly silhouetted against the sky on a wide clearing on the concession is a source or great satisfaction and of some mystification to them all.

It is a mighty fine tower,” said one food farmer to a visitor last week. “The breeze up there is something grand on a Summer evening, and you can see the Sound and all the steamers that go by. We are tired, though, trying to figure out why he put it here instead of at Coney Island.” While the tower itself is very “stagy” and picturesque, it is the wonders that are supposed to be hidden in the earth underneath it that excite the curiosity of the population in the little settlement.

In the centre of the wide concrete platform which serves as a base for the structure there is a wooden affair very much like the companionway on an ocean steamer. The tower and the enclosure in which it has been built are being carefully guarded these days, and no one except Mr. Tesla’s own men are allowed to approach it. Only they have been allowed as much as the briefest peep down the companionway. Mr. Scherff, the private secretary of the inventor, told an inquirer that the companionway led to a small drainage passage built for the purpose of keeping the ground about the tower dry.

But such of the villagers as saw the tower constructed tell a different story. They declare that it leads to a well-like excavation as deep as the tower is high with walls of mason work and a circular stairway leading to the bottom. 

From there, they say, tunnels have been built in all directions, until the entire ground below the little plain on which the tower is raise d has been honeycombed with subterranean passages. They tell with awe how Mr. Tesla, on his weekly visits to Wardenclyffe, spends as much time in the underground passages as he does on the tower or in the handsome laboratory and workshop erected beside it, and where the power plant for the world telegraph has been installed.

No instruments have been installed as yet in the transmitter, nor has Mr. Tesla given any description of what they will be like. But in his article he announces that he will transmit from the tower an electric wave of a total maximum activity of ten million horse power. This, he says, will be possible with a plant of but 100 horse power, by the use of a magnifying transmitter of his own invention and certain artifices which he promises to make known in due course. What he expects to accomplish is summed up in the closing paragraph as follows:

“When the great truth, accidentally revealed and experimentally confirmed, is fully recognized, that this planet, with all its appalling immensity, is to electric currents virtually no more than a small metal ball and that by virtue of this fact many possibilities, each baffling imagination and of incalculable consequence, are rendered absolutely sure of accomplishment; when the first plant is inaugurated and it is shown that a telegraphic message, almost as secret and non-interferable as a thought, can be transmitted to any terrestrial distance, the sound of the human voice, with all its intonations and inflections faithfully and instantly reproduced at any other point of the globe, the energy of a waterfall made available for supplying light, heat or motive power, anywhere…on sea, or land, or high in the air…humanity will be like an ant heap stirred up with a stick. See the excitement coming!” “Cloud born Electric Wavelets To Encircle the Globe: This Is Nikola Tesla’s Latest Dream, and the Long Island Hamlet of Wardenclyffe Marvels Thereat,” New York Times, 27 March 1904.

Let’s continue:

As a young man, Nikola Tesla talked often of the possibility of interplanetary communication. Influenced by Buddhist philosophy and the thinking of Ernst Mach, Tesla began to develop a cosmology that tried to get at the heart of what life was and simultaneously discover electricity’s role in the process. He believed in the concept of an all-pervasive aether and also believed that machines could be developed that would have the capability of thinking for themselves.

“The Problem of Increasing Human Energy”, which was published 100 years ago (as of June 2000) in Century Magazine spells out Tesla’s thoughts and visions for the future of mankind. This was written at the pinnacle of Tesla’s life, when he was full of vigor, fresh from his startling accomplishments with the complete victory of his alternating current system over Edison’s direct current system. In a radical departure from his previous writings which were of a technical nature, Tesla reveals his philosophy and hopes for humankind. In the article, Tesla expressed his belief that all of us are responsible for increasing the human mass, morally, intellectually, and physically. It was a radical article then… and in some circles… still be considered radical. Nonetheless it caught the eye of JP Morgan who financed Tesla’s biggest dream… and most devastating disappointment.. Wardenclyffe! With the tower he had planned for the site, Tesla was going to power the world and light the oceans…A Fascinating Vision…However, powerful economic roadblocks stood in the way that drove Tesla deep into bankruptcy and culminated in the mindless destruction of the tower at Wardenclyffe.
CREDIT: The Electrical Experimenter, Dec. 1917.

Tesla’s World Of Tomorrow

Tesla’s life changed dramatically after Wardenclyffe. Initially his focus was on developing his bladeless turbine; but always his thoughts turned towards the revival of Wardenclyffe and his beloved Magnifying Transmitter. In 1925, his ideas on the wireless transmission of power were briefly entertained by the Bureau of Standards, but were abruptly rejected out of hand… due to the ignorance of how Tesla’s system worked.

As an elderly man, Tesla discussed controversial topics such as free energy, particle beam weapons, cosmic rays that travel faster than light speed, a new magnifying transmitter which could harness these cosmic rays, interplanetary communication and also the claim that he could transmit energy at twice the speed of light.

The identification of each separate invention became a somewhat confusing task for journalists and researchers because each of these ideas involve the transmission of energy to distant places: and the so called “death ray” apparently, in its final form, comprised features from some, if not all of the other inventions above.

It is these exotic inventions that interest and fuels the free energy researchers imagination. It was Tesla’s claim that he could transmit energy at twice the speed of light that brought Tesla in direct conflict with Einstein’s suggestion that space was curved–the conventional mode of thought at the time. Tesla’s unique views on the nature of radioactivity also placed him out of the mainstream scientific world. Was Tesla simply delusional … or did he indeed have a keen insight into the wheel work of Nature? Time will tell. See “ Tesla’s Flying Machine ” for more information on this incredible artist rendition – left.

Tesla’s World of Tomorrow :

 We are an the threshold of a gigantic revolution, based on the commercialization of the wireless transmission of power.

 Motion pictures will be flashed across limitless spaces.

 The same energy (wireless transmission of power) will drive airplanes and dirigibles from one central base.

  In rocket-propelled machines… it will be practicable to attain speeds of nearly a mile a second (3600 m.p.h.) through the rarefied medium above the stratosphere.

 I have fame and untold wealth, more than this, and yet, how many articles have been written in which I was declared to be an impractical unsuccessful man, and how many poor, struggling writers have called me a visionary. Such is the folly and shortsightedness of the world! Nikola Tesla

 We will be enabled to illuminate the whole sky at night…Eventually we will flash power in virtually unlimited amounts to planets… Nikola Tesla.

CREDIT: The Electrical Experimenter, December, 1917

NIKOLA TESLA’S WIRELESS WORK

Nikola Tesla’s Wireless Work; The Creation of Tesla’s Magnifying Transmitter
Wardenclyffe, Shoreham, Long Island

“The tower was destroyed two years ago but my projects are being developed and another one, improved in some features, will be constructed. . . . My project was retarded by laws of nature.  The world was not prepared for it.  It was too far ahead of time, but the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success.” Nikola Tesla 1917
 

The Generation and Transmission of Electrical Energy

The Dynamo-Electric Machine and Two-Wire Transmission

1886 patent illustration, showing elements of an electrical generator connected to a closed two-wire circuit.

The above illustration taken from Nikola Tesla’s 1886 patent “Regulator for Dynamo-Electric Machines” shows portions of a closed two-wire circuit consisting of a generator and multiple loads wired in series.  As described in the patent, M and M’ are “one core of the field magnets,” and “a and b are the positive and negative brushes of the main or working circuit, and c is the auxiliary brush.  The working circuit D extends from the brushes a and b as usual, and contains electric lamps or other devices, D’, either in series or in multiple arc.” [Dr. Nikola Tesla  Complete Patents, pp. 8-11]  This is a direct current machine, such as might have been used as part of Edison’s DC power distribution system.

Radio-Frequency Power Supplies

The Radio Frequency Alternator

Nikola Tesla ’s research in the area of wireless telecommunications and alternating current power transmission began in 1888.  At the time he was involved in the design and manufacture of rotating machinery for the fledgling electric power industry.  In the course of this work he occasionally had opportunity to run a particular alternator at high speeds (in the area of 10,000 RPM) developing currents around 2,000 cycles per second, or 2 kHz.  The circuits also included, “transformers, etc., and condensers.”  The phenomena he observed “were entirely new” and of a nature leading him to believe that a solution to the problem of wireless energy transmission might be found therein. [Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, 1894, pp. 152-155; Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, pp. 1-8]

This machine was run up to 12,000 rpm, and had an output of about 8 kilowatts.  It had an internal resistance of only 1/40 of an ohm and was used by Tesla “for all sorts of wireless demonstrations.”  Tesla’s symbolic representation of an electrical alternator appears to the left. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 16-17]

The “Inductorium” or “Commercial Coil”

“Inductorium” is an archaic term for the commercial iron-core induction coil transformer, common during Tesla’s time.  Once again, the symbolic representation is to the left. [ EXPERIMENTS WITH ALTERNATE CURRENTS OF VERY HIGH FREQUENCY AND THEIR APPLICATION TO METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION, Delivered before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Columbia College, N.Y., May 20, 1891 (Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, pp. 145-197).]

The high-tension induction coil or “Tesla coil”

Tesla made improvements to the commercial coil resulting in the design shown above.  In operation, the inner turns of the two secondary windings are held at a relatively low potential.  This strengthening reduces the chance of arc-over to the coil’s primary windings. [ EXPERIMENTS WITH ALTERNATE CURRENTS OF HIGH POTENTIAL AND HIGH FREQUENCY Delivered before the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, February 1892 (Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, pp. 198-293).]

The Transmission of Radio-Frequency Electrical Energy

Initial Demonstrations

Two striking results lead Tesla to the conclusion that the wireless transmission of electrical energy was feasible.  Both involved the operation of the high frequency alternator paired up with an induction coil transformer.

One-Wire Transmission

The first to be demonstrated was the operation of light and motive devices connected by a single wire to only one terminal of the high frequency coil, presented in the 1891 lecture EXPERIMENTS WITH ALTERNATE CURRENTS OF VERY HIGH FREQUENCY AND THEIR APPLICATION TO METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION (Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, pp. 156-172; Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 7).

Apparatus for the demonstration of one-wire transmission

I have stated above that a body enclosed there is no difficulty whatever in bringing a wire or filament to any degree of incandescence by simply connecting it to one terminal of a coil of the proper dimensions.  Thus, if the well-known apparatus of Prof. Crookes, consisting of a bent platinum wire with vanes mounted over it (Fig. 18 / 114), be connected to one in an unexhausted bulb may be intensely heated by simply connecting it with a source of rapidly alternating potential.  The heating in such a case is, in all probability, due mostly to the bombardment of the molecules of the gas contained in the bulb.  When the bulb is exhausted, the heating of the body is much more rapid, and terminal of the coil—either one or both ends of the platinum wire being connected—the wire is rendered almost instantly incandescent, and the mica vanes are rotated as though a current from a battery were used: A thin carbon filament, or, preferably, a button of some refractory material (Fig. 19 / 115), even if it be a comparatively poor conductor, inclosed in an exhausted globe, may be rendered highly incandescent; and in this manner a simple lamp capable of giving any desired candle power is provided.

While a single terminal lamp connected to one of an induction coil’s secondary terminals does not form a closed circuit, “in the ordinary acceptance of the term” the circuit is closed in the sense that a return path is established back to the secondary by what Tesla called “electrostatic induction” (or so called displacement currents).  This is due to the fact that the lamp’s filament or refractory button has capacitance relative to the coil’s free terminal and environment and the secondary’s free terminal also has capacitance relative to the lamp and environment.

More on One-Wire Transmission

Tesla gave some additional thoughts on the concept of energy transmission through one wire without return in the lecture ON LIGHT AND OTHER HIGH FREQUENCY PHENOMENA delivered before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, February 1893, and before the National Electric Light Association, St. Louis, March 1893 [Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, pp. 294-373].

In Fig. 20 I / 184 I. is shown a plan which has been followed in the study of the resonance effects by means of a high frequency alternator.  C1 is a coil of many turns, which is divided into small separate sections for the purpose of adjustment.  The final adjustment was made sometimes with a few thin iron wires (though this is not always advisable) or with a closed secondary.  The coil C1 is connected with one of its ends to the line L from the alternator G and with the other end to one of the plates C of a condenser C C1, the plate (C1) of the latter being connected to a much larger plate P1.  In this manner both capacity and self-induction were adjusted to suit the dynamo frequency.

As regards the rise of potential through resonant action, of course, theoretically, it may amount to anything since it depends on self-induction and resistance and since these may have any value.  But in practice one is limited in the selection of these values and besides these, there are other limiting causes.  One may start with, say, 1,000 volts and raise the E. M. F. to 50 times that value, but one cannot start with 100,000 and raise it to ten times that value because of the losses in the media which are great, especially if the frequency is high.  It should be possible to start with, for instance, two volts from a high or low frequency circuit of a dynamo and raise the E. M. F. to many hundred times that value.  Thus coils of the proper dimensions might be connected each with only one of its ends to the mains from a machine of low E. M. F., and though the circuit of the machine would not be closed in the ordinary acceptance of the term, yet the machine might be burned out if a proper resonance effect would be obtained.  I have not been able to produce, nor have I observed with currents from a dynamo machine, such great rises of potential.  It is possible, if not probable, that with currents obtained from apparatus containing iron the disturbing influence of the latter is the cause that these theoretical possibilities cannot be realized.  But if such is the case I attribute it solely to the hysteresis and Foucault current losses in the core.
Generally it was necessary to transform upward, when the E. M. F. was very low, and usually an ordinary form of induction coil was employed, but sometimes the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 20 II., has been found to be convenient.  In this case a coil C is made in a great many sections, a few of these being used as a primary.  In this manner both primary and secondary are adjustable.  One end of the coil is connected to the line L1 from the alternator, and the other line L is connected to the intermediate point of the coil.  Such a coil with adjustable primary and secondary will be found also convenient in experiments with the disruptive discharge.  When true resonance is obtained the top of the wave must of course be on the free end of the coil as, for instance, at the terminal of the phosphorescence bulb B.  This is easily recognized by observing the potential of a point on the wire w near to the coil.

Two additional examples of one-wire transmission

Tesla shows two additional examples of one-wire transmission.  In the arrangement labeled above, his intention is to show the effect of resonance in promoting the movement of energy along conductor L.  Arrangement II diagrams a self-induction coil with a tap near one end, effectively dividing the coil primary and secondary sections.  It shows one-wire transmission from the transformer’s free terminal to a single terminal lamp.  In both cases, conductor L1constitutes a part of the return circuit.  Also notice the two vertical lines to the extreme left and right in the illustration.  These appear to represent the walls of an enclosed space, or, perhaps, nearby parts of the general environment.

Wireless Transmission

The second result demonstrated how energy could be made to go through space without any connecting wires.  This was the first step towards a practical wireless system.

The most striking result obtained – two vacuum tubes lighted in an alternating electrostatic field while held in the hand of the experimenter. The wireless energy transmission effect involved the creation of an electric field between two metal plates, each being connected to one terminal of the induction coil’s secondary winding. Once again, a light-producing device was used as a means of detecting the presence of the transmitted energy.
The ideal way of lighting a hall or room would, however, be to produce such a condition in it that an illuminating device could be moved and put anywhere, and that it is lighted, no matter where it is put and without being electrically connected to anything. I have been able to produce such a condition by creating in the room a powerful, rapidly alternating electrostatic field.  For this purpose I suspend a sheet of metal a distance from the ceiling on insulating cords and connect it to one terminal of the induction coil, the other terminal being preferably connected to the ground [type-one]. Or else I suspend two sheets as illustrated in Fig. 29 / 125, each sheet being connected with one of the terminals of the coil [type-two], and their size being carefully determined.

An exhausted tube may then be carried in the hand anywhere between the sheets or placed anywhere, even a certain distance beyond them; it remains always luminous.  [EXPERIMENTS WITH ALTERNATE CURRENTS OF VERY HIGH FREQUENCY AND THEIR APPLICATION TO METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION, Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, pp. 188-189; Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, pp. 7-8]

.

Transmitter type-one: a source consisting of a single metal sheet suspended a distance from the ceiling on insulating cords and connected to one terminal of an induction coil, the other terminal being connected to the ground. [NTAC]

Transmitter type-two: a source consisting of two metal sheets suspended a distance from the ceiling on insulating cords, each sheet being connected with one of the terminals of an induction coil.

Theory of Wireless Transmission

In working to develop an explanation of the two observed effects mentioned above, Tesla recognized that electrical energy could be projected outward into space and detected by a receiving instrument in the general vicinity of the source without a requirement for any interconnecting wires.  He went on to develop two theories related to these observations.

1) By using two type-one sources positioned at distant points on the earth’s surface, it is possible to induce a flow of electrical current between them.

2) By incorporating a portion of the earth as part of a powerful type-two oscillator the disturbance can be impressed upon the earth and detected “at great distance, or even all over the surface of the globe.”

Tesla also made an assumption that Earth is a charged body floating in space.

A point of great importance would be first to know what is the capacity of the earth? and what charge does it contain if electrified?  Though we have no positive evidence of a charged body existing in space without other oppositely electrified bodies being near, there is a fair probability that the earth is such a body, for by whatever process it was separated from other bodies—and this is the accepted view of its origin—it must have retained a charge, as occurs in all processes of mechanical separation.

Tesla was familiar with demonstrations that involved the charging of Leiden jar capacitors and isolated metal spheres with electrostatic influence machines.  By bringing these elements into close proximity with each other, and also by making direct contact followed by their separation the charge can be manipulated.  He surely had this in mind in the creation of his mental image, not being able to know that the model of Earth’s origin was inaccurate.  The presently accepted model of planetary origin is one of accretion and collision.

If it be a charged body insulated in space its capacity should be extremely small, less than one-thousandth of a farad.

We now know that the earth is, in fact, a charged body, made so by processes—at least in part—related to an interaction of the continuous stream of charged particles called the solar wind that flows outward from the center of our solar system and Earth’s magnetosphere.

But the upper strata of the air are conducting, and so, perhaps, is the medium in free space beyond the atmosphere, and these may contain an opposite charge.  Then the capacity might be incomparably greater.

We also know one of the upper strata of Earth’s atmosphere, the ionosphere, is conducting.

In any case it is of the greatest importance to get an idea of what quantity of electricity the earth contains.

An additional condition of which we are now aware is that the earth possesses a naturally existing negative charge with respect to the conducting region of the atmosphere beginning at an elevation of about 50 Km.  The potential difference between the earth and this region is on the order of 400,000 volts.  Near the earth’s surface there is a ubiquitous downward directed E-field of about 100 V/m.  Tesla referred to this charge as the “electric niveau” or electric level  [As noted by James Corum, et al in the paper “Concerning Cavity Q,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1988 INTERNATIONAL TESLA SYMPOSIUM, and others.]

It is difficult to say whether we shall ever acquire this necessary knowledge, but there is hope that we may, and that is, by means of electrical resonance.  If ever we can ascertain at what period the earth’s charge, when disturbed, oscillates with respect to an oppositely electrified system or known circuit, we shall know a fact possibly of the greatest importance to the welfare of the human race.  I propose to seek for the period by means of an electrical oscillator, or a source of alternating electric currents. . . .

Assume that a source of alternating currents be connected, as in Fig. 21 / 185, with one of its terminals to earth (conveniently to the water mains) and with the other to a body of large surface P. . . .  I think that beyond doubt it is possible to operate electrical devices in a city through the ground or pipe system by resonance from an electrical oscillator located at a central point.  But the practical solution of this problem would be of incomparably smaller benefit to man than the realization of the scheme of transmitting intelligence, or perhaps power, to any distance through the earth or environing medium.  If this is at all possible, distance does not mean anything.  Proper apparatus must first be produced by means of which the problem can be attacked and I have devoted much thought to this subject.  I am firmly convinced that it can be done and hope that we shall live to see it done.  [ ON LIGHT AND OTHER HIGH FREQUENCY PHENOMENA, delivered before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, and the National Electric Light Association, St. Louis, 1893, (Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, 1894, pp. 294-373).]

The High Tension Induction Coil

The above described arrangements refer only to the use of commercial coils as ordinarily constructed.  If it is desired to construct a coil for the express purpose of performing with it such experiments as I have described, or, generally, rendering it capable of withstanding the greatest possible difference of potential, then a construction as indicated in Fig. 17 / 113 will be found of advantage.  The coil in this case is formed of two independent parts which are wound oppositely, the connection between both being made near the primary.  The potential in the middle being zero, there is not much tendency to jump to the primary and not much insulation is required.  In some cases the middle point may, however, be connected to the primary or to the ground.  In such a coil the places of greatest difference of potential are far apart and the coil is capable of withstanding an enormous strain.  The two parts may be movable so as to allow a slight adjustment of the capacity effect. [Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, pp. 172-173]

A Tesla high-tension induction coil

The optimized type-two transmitter consists of two elevated metal plates, each plate being connected to one of the terminals of a Tesla high-tension induction coil.

Modification of the optimized type-two transmitter.  This circuit is the result of interpolation of the preceding and following diagrams, which are of historical record

The modified type-two transmitter shown above consists of two elevated metal plates, each plate being connected to one of the induction coil’s high-voltage terminals.  While the coil’s left-hand primary winding remains the same, i.e., it is still closely coupled to the left-hand secondary, the right-hand primary has been removed.  This means the right-hand coil is no longer energized by induction.  Using Tesla’s terminology, it is now an extra coil.  [Some adjustment might be required to bring the extra coil back into resonance with left-hand secondary.]  The extra coil is energized or receives energy by one-wire transmission through the interconnecting section of wire.

A further modification of a type-two transmitter, this circuit represents the preferred prototype transmitter design developed in 1899 at the Colorado Springs experimental station.  The transmitter circuit now consists of separate two elements, an alternator-driven oscillator and an adjacent free oscillatory system. 

In the further modified type-two transmitter shown above the two halves of the transformer have been physically separated.  The transmitter now consists of two discrete units.  The oscillator is on the left with its elevated plate still connected to the upper secondary terminal.  The free system on the right consists of the original elevated plate connected to the upper terminal of the extra coil.  Instead of a wire connecting the lower secondary and lower extra coil terminals, the two coils are now connected to individual earth grounds.  These ground connections are constructed so as to introduce the least possible resistance to the earth.  In operation a powerful current flows through the subsurface between the two ground terminals.  An interaction also takes place between the two elevated terminals.  Tesla believed the electrical disturbance would extend to a great distance from the transmitter, possibly across the globe.

Colorado Springs Experimental Station

In 1899 Tesla established the Colorado Springs experimental station.  The apparatus he assembled there served as a test bed with which to evaluate the type-two and type-one transmitter configurations described above, along with variations of the same.  Tesla settled upon the six arrangements shown in the Colorado Springs Notes on pages 190 and 191, and also on page 200.

Tesla’s own sketches of the 6 transmitter configurations developed at the Colorado Spring’s experimental station [C/S #s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 6].  Tesla’s rendering the last of these at a slightly larger scale than the rest reflects his enthusiasm for the design. [CSN, pp. 190-191, 200]

Figure 1 is a type-one transmitter and 2 through 4 are modifications thereof; 5 and 6 are type-two transmitters.  Tesla felt arrangement #6 was the most promising.  It shows up with slight variations at a number of places in theColorado Springs Notes, most significantly on pages 191, 200, 197 and 170 (see also pages 161, 162, 174, 177 and 184).  In the corresponding text on page 191 Tesla writes, “In Fig. 5. & 6. it is found best to make [the] extra coil 3/4 wave length and the secondary 1/4 for obvious reasons.”  This two-coil/two-ground configuration was incorporated into the initial Wardenclyffe design.

This is a basic rendering of the type-two transmitter configuration, the same design as that illustrated in the Colorado Springs Notes [type-two, C/S #6].  A receiving circuit is standing out to the right.  This general configuration was to be incorporated into the initial Wardenclyffe design, but it was not implemented. [RARE NOTES FROM TESLA ON WARDENCLYFFE, Leland Anderson, Electric Spacecraft Journal, Apr./May/June, # 26, 1998; See also “ Wardenclyffe and the World System.”]

The U.S. AND-logic gate patents Method of Signaling, No. 723,188 and System of Signaling, No. 725,605, show a similar arrangement; only the transmitter consists of two electrically driven oscillators tuned to different frequencies instead the single-frequency oscillator-plus-extra coil combination.  Also, the transmitter has a common ground.  The original application filing date is July 16, 1900 and it is probable that the Wardenclyffe installation, as initially proposed, would have taken on some attributes of this configuration, along with some modifications.  For example, each transmitter secondary could be provided with a dedicated ground, and perhaps an independent high voltage power supply as well.  Also, it has been suggested that if each transmitter was to be nearly in tune with its partner—say having only a 12 Hz difference in vibration rate—a low-frequency beat tone would be produced, thus introducing an ELF component to the wave complex.

Drawings from the U.S. AND-logic gate patent METHOD OF SIGNALING, No. 723,188

[improved type-one, C/S #1]. [Dr. Nikola  Complete Patents, p. 409]

The Wardenclyffe Plant

The initial conceptual plan for Wardenclyffe discussed above was tied in with the idea Tesla had that it might be possible to produce global displacements of the earth’s charge using a powerful type-two transmitter.  In theory, the local electrical current flowing in the earth between the two ground terminals causes this widespread charge displacement.  By using an appropriate resonant frequency, that is to say, one at which Earth itself would oscillate, the degree of charge displacement would increase over time.

The initial Wardenclyffe design plan called for the installation of two 600-foot tall towers in relatively close proximity to each other.  The two-tower idea could not be implemented due to financial constraints, which led to a series of modifications.  The first of these led to the arrangement shown in a sketch dated May 29, 1901 (to the left in figure below).  An electrical oscillator or discharging circuit, consisting of a resonance transformer and an extra coil, is coupled to the tower structure through an adjustable air gap.  The tower cupola is supported on electrically conducting legs, which, in turn, are attached to a substantial grounding system.  The capacitance of the cupola relative to the environment and the high-potential oscillator terminal, along with the inductance of the tower legs comprise a separate resonant LC circuit which Tesla designated the “free system.”

Two design drawings, with variations, of the initial Wardenclyffe transmitter design of 1901 [modified type-two, C/S #5/6].  Notice the independent grounds.  [Tesla calculated the legs would have to be at least 600 feet in length.]  Notice also the alternator-driven oscillator and the adjoining free oscillatory system. .   [RARE NOTES FROM TESLA ON WARDENCLYFFE, Leland Anderson, Electric Spacecraft Journal, Apr./May/June, # 26, 1998]   

The right-hand diagram above includes a low-frequency alternator and high-voltage power supply transformer connected to a disruptive-discharge type oscillator.  The circuit incorporates a dual inductor-capacitor [LC] arrangement in the oscillatory transformer primary tank circuit along with dual secondary windings.  Independent tuning the two sides of the circuit to different frequencies (n/4 lambda, n being an uneven number) would result in the development of a higher order wave complex beyond the fundamental resonant frequency of the extra coil.  [“The transmitter was to emit a wave-complex of special characteristics. . . .” MY INVENTIONS; “. . . the transmitter was designed to emit a wave-complex exactly matching the [receiver] combination in the number and pitch of individual vibrations, their groupment and order of succession. . . .” TESLA’S TIDAL WAVE TO MAKE WAR IMPOSSIBLE, English Mechanic and World of Science, May 3, 1907, p. 296.]

Modified Wardenclyffe transmitter design.  [RARE NOTES FROM TESLA ON WARDENCLYFFE, Leland Anderson, Electric Spacecraft Journal, Apr./May/June, # 26, 1998]

In the above figure the straight conducting legs have assumed a spiral form.  An obvious advantage would be a reduction in the structure’s overall height above ground level.  Also, notice that the number of turns varies from leg to leg.  This would also result in the development of what might be called a higher order wave complex by the transmitter—allowing a form of spread-spectrum frequency-division multiplexing.

Tesla began operational testing of the Wardenclyffe plant in July 1903 and it appears that he was not at all satisfied with its’ performance.  While it is possible a type-two transmitter could be made to work properly, it can be seen that he experienced difficulty with the single-tower implementation of the design.  His experiments with the 1899 through 1901 configuration led him to write his underwriter J.P. Morgan on November 5, 1903,

Dear Mr. Morgan:-

The enclosed bears out my statement made to you over a year and a half ago.  The old plant has never worked beyond a few hundred miles.  Apart of imperfections of the apparatus design there were four defects, each of which was fatal to success.  It does not seem probable that the new plant will do much better, for these faults were of a widely different nature and difficult to discover.

As to the remedies, I have protected myself in applications filed 1900-1902, still in the office.

                              Yours faithfully,

                                                N. Tesla

The “old plant” refers to the Colorado Springs Experimental Station or perhaps an initial Wardenclyffe installation bearing some resemblance to it.

As for the “remedies” protected in applications filed between 1900 and 1902, and “still in the office,” the only patented invention meeting these criteria is APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY, No. 1,119,732, issued Dec. 1, 1914.  Comparing the two basic circuits the most obvious difference is the elimination of the stand-alone extra coil or free [oscillating] system and the plasma coupler [type-two, C/S #6].  The entire transmitter is now comprised solely of the discharging circuit—an oscillatory transformer with an extra coil connected directly to the elevated terminal [type-one, C/S #1].

The Magnifying Transmitter

The 1902 transmitter constituted a departure from the earlier type-two transmitter planned for the Wardenclyffe facility.  The new design was a type-one transmitter in which a second conducting path would be established in the upper half-space between plant’s elevated terminal and that of the distant receiving facility. [Type-one, C/S #1; APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY, No. 1,119,732, Dr. Nikola Tesla  Complete Patents. p. 435]

Other defects of the Colorado apparatus could have been the antenna feed point (see CSN, pp. 170, 197) and also the slender mast in contrast to the large diameter elevated capacity—either an oblate spheroid or toroid shaped—used in the Wardenclyffe design), the 1:1 aspect ratio C/S extra coil verses the 9.1:1 aspect ratio extra coil shown in the 1914 patent, and the shallow Colorado ground plate verses the 300-foot long section of pipe at the bottom of a 120-foot deep shaft [see The Connection to Earth].  [Further differences between the Colorado Springs layout and the Long Island plant?]   Also the considerable distance (about 350 feet) between the high-voltage power supply transformers and the tower-side components, including, at the very least, a helical resonator, could have been a problem on Long Island.  Two other seemingly applicable patents filed for within the specified time period and patented in 1900 are “Means for Increasing the Intensity of Electrical Oscillations,” No. 787,412 and “Method of Insulating Electrical Conductors,” No. 655,838, reissued as No. 11,865.  Both of these inventions might have been useful for improving the Wardenclyffe plant’s performance; the first for the magnifying transmitter itself, the second for improving high-voltage power transmission between the lab building and the tower structure.

In any case, it can be seen that some major modifications were made to the design.  He later said,

I used the antenna.  I used it right along up to 1907.  I made my measurements and experiments, and I transmitted for the purpose of tests, energy and all that, but it never went further than is shown in the picture.  [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, Leland Anderson, Twenty First Century Books, p. 154

Functional Description of Tesla’s Magnifying Transmitter

Earth’s Conductivity

Based upon a series of experiments conducted between 1888 and 1907 Tesla concluded that the earth is an excellent electrical conductor.  He believed an electric current c  ould propagate to terrestrial distances of thousands of miles “without diminution of intention,” and made observations that, he felt, supported this supposition.  He also found that Earth’s naturally existing electrical charge can be made to oscillate, and that “by impressing upon it current waves [i.e., surface waves] of certain lengths, definitely related to its diameter, the globe is thrown into resonant vibration like a wire, forming stationary waves.”

Its singleness is only an apparent limitation, for by impressing upon it numerous non-interfering vibrations, the flow of energy may be directed through any number of paths which, though bodily connected, are yet perfectly distinct and separate like ever so many cables.  Any apparatus, then, which can be operated through one or more wires, at distances obviously limited, can likewise be worked without artificial conductors, and with the same facility and precision, at distances without limit other than that imposed by the physical dimensions of the globe.

It is intended to give practical demonstrations of these principles with the plant illustrated. . . . dictate instructions, and have them instantly appear in type elsewhere . . . talk to any telephone subscriber on the globe . . . hear anywhere music or song, speech . . . picture, character, drawing, or print transferred from one to another place . . . millions of instruments operated from one plant . . . transmission of power shown . . .  [“ The Future of the Wireless Art” Wireless Telegraphy & Telephony, Walter W. Massie & Charles R. Underhill, 1908, pp. 67-71]

Tesla felt the resistance of the Earth would be negligible due to its immense cross sectional area and relative shortness as compared to its diameter. (Corum & Corum)  The key to good performance is a robust ground connection.

A [conducting] sphere of the size of a little marble offers a greater impediment to the passage of a current than the whole earth. . . .  This is not merely a theory, but a truth established in numerous and carefully conducted experiments. [ibid]

. . . You must first understand certain things.  Consider, for instance, the term “resistance.”  When you think of resistance you imagine, naturally, that you have a long, thin conductor; but remember that while resistance is directly proportionate to length, it is inversely proportionate to the section.  It is a quality that depends on a ratio.  If you take a small sphere of the same size of a pea, and compare its length with its section, you would find a certain resistance.  Now you extend this pea to the size of the earth, and what is going to happen?

While the length increases, say a thousand times or a million times, the section increases with the square of the linear dimensions, so that the bigger this thing is the less resistance it has.  Indeed, if the earth were as big as the sun we would still be better off than we are; we could readily telephone from one end of the sun to the other by the system, and the larger the planet the better it would be. . . . The resistance is only at the point where you get into the earth with your current.  The rest is nothing.  [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, pp. 134-135]

Surface Waves

In 1916 Tesla stated in regards to the disposition of the “vibratory energy” of the oscillator,

By proper design and choice of wavelengths, you can arrange it so that you get, for instance, 5 percent in these electromagnetic waves and 95 percent in the current that goes through the earth.  That is what I am doing. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 132]

Tesla often spoke of the electrical disturbance being in the form of an electrical current flowing through the earth.  As with any electrical current flowing through a conductor surrounded by an insulating medium, there is also an electrical disturbance in the material or space adjacent to that conductor.  In the case of the World System, this is a surface wave traveling along the interface between the ground and the air.  The wave energy is associated with the ground current.  It does not radiate freely into space but tends to be concentrated near the surface of the conductor, i.e., the guiding surface.  This is equivalent to the fields associated with an electrical current flowing in a wire.

126 x-Q.  In this system, then, as you have described it, the current actually flows from the transmitter through the ground to the receiver; is that so?

Yes, sir; it does, in accordance with my understanding. In my Patent No. 649,621, “Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy,” [May 15, 1900] it is stated distinctly:

“It is to be noted that the phenomenon here involved in the transmission of electrical energy is one of true conduction and is not to be confounded with the phenomena of electrical radiation, etc.”

The attractive feature of this plan was that the intensity of the signals should diminish very little with the distance, and, in fact, should not diminish at all, if it were not for certain losses occurring, chiefly in the atmosphere.  [Nikola Tesla: Guided Weapons & Computer technology, Leland Anderson, Twenty First Century Books, p. 82]

Atmospheric Conductivity

The point-to-point type-one “air-ground system” depends upon passage of electrical current through both the earth and the atmosphere.  To accommodate this, the Wardenclyffe-type World System transmitter/receiver facility includes both an air and a ground connection, each being called a “terminal.”  Tesla clearly specified the earth as being one of the conducting media involved in ground and air system technology.  The other specified medium is the atmosphere above 5 miles elevation.  While not an ohmic conductor, in this region of the troposphere and upwards, the density or pressure is sufficiently reduced to so that, according to Tesla’s theory, the atmosphere’s insulating properties can be easily impaired, allowing an electric current to flow.  His theory further states that the conducting region is developed through the process of atmospheric ionization, in which the effected portions thereof are changed to plasma.  The presence of the magnetic fields developed by each plant’s helical resonator suggests that an embedded magnetic field and flux linkage is also involved.  Flux linkage with Earth’s natural magnetic field is also a possibility.

The atmosphere below 5 miles is also viewed as a propagating medium for a portion of the aboveground circuit, and, being an insulating medium, electrostatic induction would be involved rather than true electrical conduction.  Tesla felt that with a sufficiently high electrical potential on the elevated terminal the practical limitation imposed upon its height could be overcome.  He anticipated that a highly energetic transmitter, as was intended at Wardenclyffe, would charge the elevated terminal to the point where the atmosphere around and above the facility would break down and become ionized, leading to a flow of true conduction currents between the two terminals by a path up to and through the troposphere, and back down to the other facility.  The ionization of the atmosphere directly above the elevated terminals could be facilitated by the placement of a projection at the apex of the elevated terminal.  Such projections are routinely used by Tesla coil builders to create a directed discharge.  Alternatively, an ionizing beam of ultraviolet radiation could be used to form what might be called a high-voltage plasma transmission line.

In 1935 Tesla spoke about the transmission of propulsive power to ships at sea “through the stratosphere” using this technique.

The principles of this high tension power, generated by shore plants and transmitted through the upper reaches of the air, illuminating the sky, turning night into day and at the same time supplying power, have occupied Dr. Tesla’s attention on and off now for the past thirty-five years. . . .

There is a method of conveying great power to ships at sea which would be able to propel them across oceans at high speed. . . .

The principle is this.  A ray of great ionizing power is used to give to the atmosphere great powers of conduction.  A high tension current of 10,000,000 to 12,000,000 volts is then passed along the ray to the upper strata of the air, which strata can be broken down very readily and will conduct electricity very well.

A ship would have to have equipment for producing a similar ionizing ray.  The current which has passed through the stratosphere will strike this ray, travel down it and pass into the engines which propel the ship. [“Faster Liners is Tesla’s Dream,” New York Sun, June 5, 1935]

A minimal type-one system would be composed of two identical type-one facilities.  Each would be capable of acting as a transmitter or a receiver, i.e. each could serve as either an energy source or as a load.  The net flow of energy between the two plants would be dictated by the phase relationship between them and the relative level of activity.  There would be two elevated terminals, one at each facility.  The atmospheric path passes high potential, low current electrical energy through a somewhat resistive plasma transmission line running the entire distance between the two elevated terminals.  Conversely, the low-resistance ‘ground’ path passes electrical energy of low potential and high current, flowing through the body of the earth.

It is well known, the higher the voltage that is passed across a conventional electrical power transmission line, the greater is its efficiency.  This is due to the relationship between voltage and current as they pertain to power dissipation.  For example, to power a hypothetical 100-watt load, the current can be one ampere at 100 volts, 10 amperes at 10 volts or 100 amperes at 1 volt, or any number of similar combinations.  Every conductor, other than a superconductor, has a finite resistance.  The voltage drop (E) across a resistance (R) is given by Ohm’s law, E = IR.  For any given load, with a constant transmission-line resistance, by lowering the current (I) that flows through the transmission line, the voltage drop or loss is reduced.  As can be seen by the inverse relationship between voltage and current, increasing the transmission-line voltage reduces the current.  Conversely, the greater the current involved in powering a given load, the greater is the transmission-line loss, taken as a function of transmission-line resistance.

The above statements about transmission-line loss are also true in regards to the plasma transmission line that runs between the two elevated terminals.  Tesla designed his transmitter with the expressed purpose of developing the greatest possible potential on the elevated terminal in order to minimize the loss due to the plasma transmission-line resistance.  Looking at the Tesla type-one wireless energy transmission system, each of the two transmitter-receiver facilities serve, in a sense, as a lever and a fulcrum for conversion of the electrical energy flowing across the two different conducting paths. [Corum & Corum]

. . . by such means as have been described practically any potential that is desired may be obtained, the currents through the air strata may be rendered very small, whereby the loss in the transmission may be reduced.  [ System of Transmission of Electrical Energy, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900]

The influence of resistance on transmission line efficiency depends upon the impedance of the source and the load.  For example, if a power supply puts out one watt, but puts it out at one volt and one amp, then the output impedance of the source is one ohm.  (R = E/I) The transmission line had better have much less resistance than one ohm (say 0.1 ohm or smaller) otherwise a significant portion of the transmitted energy will go into heating of the wire.  In other words, the one volt, one amp source thinks the division between conductor and insulator is centered at the value of one ohm.  A 100-ohm leakage path is nearly an insulator, since it dissipates only 1% of the output wattage.  Now suppose the power supply puts out one watt at one kilovolt and one milliamp.  In that case the source impedance is one megaohm, and the connecting wires had better be 100K or less in resistance.  In this case a 10K resistor is a conductor of negligible resistance, and a one-megaohm leakage path will eat up half of the power supply’s output.

Applying this relationship to a type-one Tesla coil transmission system, if the transmitter puts out one megawatt at one megavolts and one amp, then 100K is a fairly good conductor, and insulators have to measure 10 megaohms or better.  In this case, if you could create a vertical plasma transmission line, and if the plasma filament measured 10 kilo-ohm, it would only consume 1% of the transmitter’s power output.  If the potential of transmitter’s elevated terminal is raised to 100 megavolts at 10 mA (this is still 1 megawatt), then the supply impedance is 10,000 megaohms, and the plasma transmission line will act as a negligible series resistance even if its resistance is 100 megaohms. [The two preceding paragraphs are based upon an original text by William Beaty]

It was about 1896 when Tesla discovered that with a sufficiently high potential on the terminal plate (P1) he could modify the properties of the air in the vicinity of his apparatus, changing it from an insulator to a conductor

Up to the end of 1896, I had been developing the wireless system along the lines set forth in my lecture which is in the Martin book, particularly in the chapter on Electrical Resonance, pages 340-349. . . . But in experimenting with these high potential discharges which I was always producing, I discovered a wonderful thing.  I found, namely, that the air, which had been behaving before like an insulator, suddenly became like a conductor; that is, when subjected to these great electrical stresses, it broke down and I obtained discharges which were not accountable for by the theory that the air was an insulator.  When I calculated the effects, I concluded that this must be due to the potential gradient at a distance from the electrified body, and subsequently I came to the conviction that it would be ultimately possible, without any elevated antenna—with very small elevation—to break down the upper stratum of the air and transmit the current by conduction. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 125]

Tesla described this effect as observed at the Colorado Springs Experimental Station in the patent “System of Transmission of Electrical Energy.”

. . . In illustration of these facts a few observations, which I have made with apparatus devised for the purposes here contemplated, may be cited.  For example, a conductor or terminal, to which impulses such as those here considered are supplied, but which is otherwise insulated in space and is remote from any conducting-bodies, is surrounded by a luminous flame-like brush or discharge often covering many hundreds or even as much as several thousands of square feet of surface, this striking phenomenon clearly attesting the high degree of conductivity which the atmosphere attains under the influence of the immense electrical stresses to which it is subjected.  This influence is however, not confined to that portion of the atmosphere which is discernible by the eye as luminous and which, as has been the case in some instances actually observed, may fill the space within a spherical or cylindrical envelop of a diameter of sixty feet or more, but reaches out to far remote regions, the insulating qualities of the air being, as I have ascertained, still sensibly impaired at a distance many hundred times that through which the luminous discharge projects from the terminal and in all probability much farther.  The distance extends with the increase of the electromotive force of the impulses, with the diminution of the density of the atmosphere, with the elevation of the active terminal above the ground, and also, apparently, in slight measure, with the degree of moisture contained in the air.

I have likewise observed that this region of decidedly-noticeable influence continuously enlarges as time goes on, and the discharge is allowed to pass not unlike a conflagration which slowly spreads, this being possibly due to the gradual electrification or ionization of the air or to the formation of less insulating gaseous compounds.  It is, furthermore, a fact that such discharges of extreme tensions, approximating those of lightning, manifest a marked tendency to pass upward away from the ground, which may be due to electrostatic repulsion, or possibly to slight heating and consequent rising of the electrified or ionized air.  These latter observations make it appear probable that a discharge of this character allowed to escape into the atmosphere from a terminal maintained at a great height will gradually leak through and establish a good conducting-path to more elevated and better conducting air strata, a process which possibly takes place in silent lightning discharges frequently witnessed on hot and sultry days.

It will be apparent to what an extent the conductivity imparted to the air is enhanced by the increase of the electromotive force of the impulses when it is stated that in some instances the area covered by the flame discharge mentioned was enlarged more than sixfold by an augmentation of the electrical pressure, amounting scarcely to more than fifty per cent.  As to the influence of rarefaction upon the electric conductivity imparted to the gases it is noteworthy that, whereas the atmospheric or other gases begin ordinarily to manifest this quality at something like seventy-five millimeters barometric pressure with the impulses of excessive electromotive force to which I have referred, the conductivity, as already pointed out, begins even at normal pressure and continuously increases with the degree of tenuity of the gas, so that at, say, one hundred and thirty millimeters pressure, when the gases are known to be still nearly perfect insulators for ordinary electromotive forces, they behave toward electromotive impulses of several millions of volts, like excellent conductors, as though they were rarefied to a much higher degree. . . . [Dr. Nikola Tesla  Complete Patents, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, “System of Transmission of Electrical Energy,” pp. 312-313]

He was ionizing the air and creating plasma, which is electrically conductive.  In light of this new understanding, he began to develop an alternative to the type-two-transmitter plan by which he might achieve wireless energy transmission.

Having discovered that, I established conditions under which I might operate in putting up a practical commercial plant.  When the matter came up in the patents before the Examiner, I arranged this experiment for him in my Houston Street laboratory. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 126]

Tesla’s diagram representing the arrangement of apparatus as demonstrated to G.D. Seeley.

This is a diagram representing the arrangement of apparatus as in a practical experiment which I performed before G.D. Seeley, Examiner in Chief, U.S. Patent Office, on the 23rd of January, 1898.  This experiment illustrates a great departure I had made a little prior to that date. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 125]

Tesla’s demonstration for the U.S. Patent Office, on January 23, 1898, at his Houston St. laboratory in New York City, was to show of the practicability of transmission of electrical energy in industrial amounts by the method and apparatus described in “System of Transmission of Electrical Energy,” U.S. Patent No. 645,576, dated March 20, 1900 and “Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy,” U.S. Patent No. 649,621, dated May 15, 1900.  The applications for both patents were filed September 2, 1897.  [These are the initial patents specifically covering Tesla’s wireless system.]

In 1898 I made certain demonstrations before the Examiner-in-Chief of the Patent Office, Mr. Seeley, and it was upon showing him the practicability of the transmission that patents were granted to me. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 27]

It might be argued the Colorado Springs experiments also served to demonstrate the technology in advance of patent issuance.  The above-mentioned patents are dated March 20 and May 15, 1900, about 7 months after Tesla’s return to New York.  The Wardenclyffe project served to further demonstrate and refine the method and apparatus, as described in the U.S. Patents “Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Mediums,” No. 787,412, April 18, 1905 and “Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy,” No. 1,119,732, December 1, 1914.

Earth Resonance

Tesla’s “World System” for wireless telegraphy, telephony and transmission of power was also to apply the principle of earth resonance.

If ever we can ascertain at what period the earth’s charge, when disturbed, oscillates with respect to an oppositely electrified system or known circuit, we shall know a fact possibly of the greatest importance to the welfare of the human race.  I propose to seek for the period by means of an electrical oscillator, or a source of alternating electric currents.  One of the terminals of the source would be connected to earth as, for instance, to the city water mains, the other to an insulated body of large surface.  It is possible that the outer conducting air strata, or free space, contain an opposite charge and that, together with the earth, they form a condenser of very large capacity.  In such case the period of vibration may be very low and an alternating dynamo machine might serve for the purpose of the experiment.  I would then transform the current to a potential as high as it would be found possible and connect the ends of the high tension secondary to the ground and to the insulated body.  By varying the frequency of the currents and carefully observing the potential of the insulated body and watching for the disturbance at various neighboring points of the earth’s surface resonance might be detected.  Should, as the majority of scientific men in all probability believe, the period be extremely small, then a dynamo machine would not do and a proper electrical oscillator would have to be produced and perhaps it might not be possible to obtain such rapid vibrations.  But whether this be possible or not, and whether the earth contains a charge or not, and whatever may be its period of vibration, it certainly is possible—for of this we have daily evidence—to produce some electrical disturbance sufficiently powerful to be perceptible by suitable instruments at any point of the earth’s surface.  [ ON LIGHT AND OTHER HIGH FREQUENCY PHENOMENA, Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, 1894, p. 347.]

. . . It was clear to me from the very start that the successful consummation could only be brought about by a number of radical improvements.  Suitable high frequency generators and electrical oscillators had first to be produced.  The energy of these had to be transformed in effective transmitters and collected at a distance in proper receivers.  Such a system would be manifestly circumscribed in its usefulness if all extraneous interference were not prevented and exclusiveness secured.  In time, however, I recognized that devices of this kind, to be most effective and efficient, should be designed with due regard to the physical properties of this planet and the electrical conditions obtaining on the same.. [“ The True Wireless” Electrical Experimenter, May 1919]

When the earth is struck mechanically, as is the case in some powerful terrestrial upheaval, it vibrates like a bell, its period being measured in hours.  When it is struck electrically, the charge oscillates, approximately, twelve times a second.  By impressing upon it current waves of certain lengths, definitely related to its diameter, the globe is thrown into resonant vibration like a wire, stationary waves forming, the nodal and ventral regions of which can be located with mathematical precision.  Owing to this fact and the spheroidal shape of the earth, numerous geodetical and other data, very accurate and of the greatest scientific and practical value, can be readily secured.  Through the observation of these astonishing phenomena we shall soon be able to determine the exact diameter of the planet, its configuration and volume, the extent of its elevations and depressions, and to measure, with great precision and with nothing more than an electrical device, all terrestrial distances.  In the densest fog or darkness of night, without a compass or other instruments of orientation, or a timepiece, it will be possible to guide a vessel along the shortest or orthodromic path, to instantly read the latitude and longitude, the hour, the distance from any point, and the true speed and direction of movement.  By proper use of such disturbances a wave may be made to travel over the earth’s surface with any velocity desired, and an electrical effect produced at any spot which can be selected at will and the geographical position of which can be closely ascertained from simple rules of trigonometry. [“The Future of the Wireless Art” 1908]

In fact, Tesla proposed two different methods by which global wireless energy transmission might be achieved.  The first is by atmospheric conduction using two type-one facilities as described in the previous section.  The second involves the use of earth resonance principles, the creation of manmade oscillations in Earth’s naturally existing electrical charge.  This was made clear in a 1932 interview in which he makes a distinction between the transmission of electrical energy by ionization of the upper atmosphere and terrestrial resonance.

I also asked him if he is still at work on the project which he inaugurated in the ’90’s of transmitting power wirelessly anywhere on earth.  He is at work on it, he said, and it could be put into operation. . . . He at that time announced two principles which could be used in this project.  In one the ionizing of the upper air would make it as good a conductor of electricity as a metal [using a type-one transmitter in conjunction with an active receiver].  In the other the power would be transmitted by creating “standing waves” in the earth by charging the earth with a giant electrical oscillator [of the type-two design] that would make the earth vibrate electrically in the same way a bell vibrates mechanically when it is struck with a hammer.  “I do not use the plan involving the conductivity of the upper strata of the air,” he said, “but I use the conductivity of the earth itself, and in this I need no wires to send electrical energy to any part of the globe.” [Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor May Transmit Power ‘Round Earth Brooklyn Eagle, July 10, 1932, John J. A. O’Neill ]

The earth resonance method has basis in the one-wire transmission principles spoken of in the 1893 lecture ON LIGHT AND OTHER HIGH FREQUENCY PHENOMENA (see More on One-wire Transmission above.)  It is described in U.S Patent No. 787,412, “ART OF TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY THROUGH THE NATURAL MEDIUMS.”  Here are some statements regarding “. . . improvement in the art of transmitting electrical energy to a distance which consists in establishing stationary electrical waves in the earth, . . .” contained in the similar Canadian patent:

. . . electrical disturbances may be transmitted through portions of the earth by grounding only one of the poles of the source. . . .  Earth . . . behave[s] . . . much like a vast reservoir or ocean, which, while it may be locally disturbed by a commotion of some kind remains unresponsive and quiescent in a large part or as a whole. . . .  When electrical waves or oscillations are impressed upon . . . a metallic wire, reflection takes place under certain conditions from the end of the wire, and in consequence of the interference of the impressed and reflected oscillations the phenomenon of “stationary waves” with maxima and minima in definite fixed positions is produced. . . . The terrestrial globe may in a large part or as a whole behave toward disturbance impressed upon it in the same manner as a conductor of limited size. . . .

In . . . studying the effects of lightning discharges upon the electrical condition of the earth I observed . . . electrical waves which were produced in the earth and which had nodal regions following at definite distances the shifting source of the disturbances.  From data obtained in a large number of observations of these waves I found their length to vary approximately from twenty-five to seventy kilometre and these results and certain theoretical deductions led me to the conclusion that waves of this kind may be of still more widely differing lengths, the extreme limits being imposed by the physical dimensions and properties of the earth.

Figure 1 represents diagrammatically the generator which produces stationary waves in the earth, and Fig. 2 an apparatus situated in a remote locality for recording the effects of these waves.

In Fig. 1, A designates a primary coil forming part of a transformer and consisting generally of a few turns of a stout cable of inappreciable resistance, the ends of which are connected to the terminals of a source of powerful electrical oscillations, diagrammatically represented by D.  This source is usually a condenser charged to a high potential and discharged in rapid succession through the primary, as in a type of transformer invented by me and now well known; but when it is desired to produce stationary waves of great lengths an alternating dynamo of suitable construction may be used to energize the primary A. . . . the total length of the conductor, from the ground-plate E to the elevated terminal D should be equal to one-quarter of the wave length of the electrical disturbance in the system E C D or else equal to that length multiplied by an odd number.  This relation being observed, the terminal D will be made to coincide with the points of maximum pressure in the secondary or excited circuit, and the greatest flow of electricity will take place in the same.  In order to magnify the electrical movement in the secondary as much as possible, it is essential that its inductive connection with the primary A should not be very intimate, as in ordinary transformers, but loose, so as to permit free oscillation. . . The spiral form of coil C secures this advantage. The powerful electrical oscillations in the system E C D being communicated to the ground cause corresponding vibrations to be propagated to distant parts of the globe, whence they are reflected and by interference with the outgoing vibrations produce stationary waves the crests and hollows of which lie in parallel circles relatively to which the ground–plate E may be considered to be the pole.  Stated otherwise, the terrestrial conductor is thrown into resonance with the oscillations impressed upon it just like a wire. Three requirements seem to be essential to the establishment of the resonating condition.

First. The earth’s diameter passing through the pole should be an odd multiple of the quarter wave length – that is, of the ratio between the velocity of light – and four times the frequency of the currents.

M = D/(1/4 lambda) where lambda = c/f = 4D/M and M is the odd multiple.

C = speed of light at 299,792 km/sec.

D = Earth diameter at 12,742 km.

M = odd multiple at 1

The resonant frequency is therefore given to be: f = M x C / 4D = 5.881965 (Yost)

The resonant frequency based upon round-trip time: f = 2(M x C / 4D) = 11.76393

Second. It is necessary to employ oscillations in which the rate of radiation of energy into space in the form of hertzian or electromagnetic waves is very small . . . say smaller then twenty thousand per second, though shorter waves might be practicable.  The lowest frequency would appear to be six per second, in which case there will be but one node, at or near the ground-plate . . .

Third. . . . irrespective of frequency the wave or wave-train should continue for a certain interval of time, estimated to be not less then one-twelfth or probably 0.08484 of a second and which is taken in passing to and returning from the region diametrically opposite the pole . . .

The presence of the stationary waves may be detected in many ways .  For instance, a circuit may be connected directly or inductively to the ground and to an elevated terminal and tuned to respond more effectively to the oscillations.  Another way is to connect a tuned circuit to the ground at two points lying more or less in a meridian passing through the pole E or, generally stated, to any two points of a different potential.

The specific plan of producing the stationary waves, here-in described, might be departed from.  For example, the circuit which impresses the powerful oscillations upon the earth might be connected to the latter at two points [a type-two transmitter].

In collecting the energy of these disturbances in any terrestrial region at a distance from their source, . . . the most economical results will be generally secured by the employment of my synchronized receiving transformer.

To complete this description, it may be stated that when it is desired to operate, independently, a great many receiving devices, by such stationary waves of different length, the principles which I have set forth in my British patent 14,579 [1901] and in my United States patents Nos. 723,188 and 725,605 [1903] may be resorted to for rendering the signals or quantities of energy intended for any particular receiver or receivers non-interfering and non-interferable.

Related statements from Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power:

[Quote] To give you an idea, I have prepared a diagram illustrating an analogue which will clearly show how the current passes through the globe.  You know that in a solar eclipse the moon comes between the sun and the earth, and that its shadow is projected upon the earth’s surface.  Evidently, in a given moment, the shadow will just touch at a mathematical point, the earth, assuming it to be a sphere.

Diagram illustrating the mode of propagation of the current from the transmitter over the earth’s surface.

Let us imagine that my transmitter is located at this point, and that the current generated by it now passes through the earth.  It does not pass through the earth in the ordinary acceptance of the term, it only penetrates to a certain depth according to the frequency.  Most of it goes on the surface, but with frequencies such as I employ, it will dive a few miles below.  It can be mathematically shown that it is immaterial how it passes; the aggregate effect of these currents is as if the whole current passes from the transmitter, which I call the pole, to the opposite point, which I call the antipode. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, pp. 137-138]

The phrase “a few miles below” gives the earth current propagation model a minimum skin depth of 3 miles, 15,850 feet, or 4,828 meters.

Assume, then, that here is the transmitter, and imagine that this is the surface of the sea, and that now comes the shadow of the moon and touches, on a mathematical point, the calm ocean.  You can readily see that as the surface of the water, owing to the enormous radius of the earth, is nearly a plane, that point where the shadow falls will immediately, on the slightest motion of the shadow downward, enlarge the circle at a terrific rate, and it can be shown mathematically that this rate is infinite.  In other words, this half-circle on this side will fly over the globe as the shadow goes down; will first start at infinite velocity to enlarge, and then slower and slower and slower, and as the moon’s shadow goes further and further and further, it will get slower and slower until, finally, when the three bodies are on the plane of the ecliptic, right in line one with the other in the same plane, then that shadow will pass over the globe with its true velocity in space.  Exactly that same thing happens in the application of my system, and I will show this next.

Diagram illustrating the law governing the passage of the current from the transmitter through the earth, first announced in U.S. Patent No. 787,412 of April 18, 1905.  Application filed May 16, 1900.  See also J. Erskine-Murray, A Handbook of Wireless Telegraphy, Chapt. 17, pp. 312-330, 1913 edition, published by Crosby Lockwood and Son, London, and Appleton & Company, New York.

This illustrates, on a larger scale, the earth.  Here is my transmitter — mine or anybody’s transmitter — because my system is the system of the day.  The only difference is in the way I apply it.  They, the radio engineers, want to apply my system one way; I want to apply it in another way. This is the circuit energizing the antenna.  As the vibratory energy flows, two things happen:  There is electromagnetic energy radiated and a current passes into the earth.  The first goes out in the form of rays, which have definite properties.  These rays propagate with the velocity of light, 300,000 kilometers per second.  This energy is exactly like a hot stove.  If you will imagine that the cylinder antenna is hot — and indeed it is heated by the current — it would radiate out energy of exactly the same kind as it does now.  If the system is applied in the sense I want to apply it, this energy is absolutely lost, in all cases most of it is lost.  While this electromagnetic energy throbs, a current passes into the globe.

Now, there is a vast difference between these two, the electromagnetic and current energies.  That energy which goes out in the form of rays, is, as I have indicated here, unrecoverable, hopelessly lost.  You can operate a little instrument by catching a billionth part of it but, except this, all goes out into space never to return.  This other energy, however, of the current in the globe, is stored and completely recoverable.  Theoretically, it does not take much effort to maintain the earth in electrical vibration.  I have, in fact, worked out a plant of 10,000 horse-power which would operate with no bigger loss than 1 percent of the whole power applied; that is, with the exception of the frictional energy that is consumed in the rotation of the engines and the heating of the conductors, I would not lose more than 1 percent.  In other words, if I have a 10,000 horsepower plant, it would take only 100 horsepower to keep the earth vibrating so long as there is no energy taken out at any other place.

There is another difference.  The electromagnetic energy travels with the speed of light, but see how the current flows.  At the first moment, this current propagates exactly like the shadow of the moon at the earth’s surface.  It starts with infinite velocity from that point, but its speed rapidly diminishes; it flows slower and slower until it reaches the equator, 6,000 miles from the transmitter.  At that point, the current flows with the speed of light — that is, 300,000 kilometers per second.  But, if you consider the resultant current through the globe along the axis of symmetry of propagation, the resultant current flows continuously with the same velocity of light. Whether this current passing through the center of the earth to the opposite side is real, or whether it is merely an effect of these surface currents, makes absolutely no difference.  To understand the concept, one must imagine that the current from the transmitter flows straight to the opposite point of the globe.

There is where I answer the attacks which have been made on me.  For instance, Dr. Pupin has ridiculed the Tesla system.  He says, “The energy goes only in all directions.” It does not.  It goes only in one direction.  He is deceived by the size and shape of the earth.  Looking at the horizon, he imagines how the currents flow in all directions, but if he would only for a moment think that this earth is like a copper wire and the transmitter on the top of the same, he would immediately realize that the current only flows along the axis of the propagation.

The mode of propagation can be expressed by a very simple mathematical law, which is, the current at any point flows with a velocity proportionate to the cosecant of the angle which a radius from that point includes with the axis of symmetry of wave propagation.  At the transmitter, the cosecant is infinite; therefore, the velocity is infinite.  At a distance of 6,000 miles, the cosecant is unity; therefore, the velocity is equal to that of light.  This law I have expressed in a patent by the statement that the projections of all zones on the axis of symmetry are of the same length, which means, in other words, as is known from rules of trigonometry, that the areas of all the zones must also be equal.  It says that although the waves travel with different velocities from point to point, nevertheless each half wave always includes the same area.  This is a simple law, not unlike the one which has been expressed by Kepler with reference to the areas swept over by the radii vectors.

I hope that I have been clear in this exposition – in bringing to your attention that what I show here is the system of the day, and is my system — only the radio engineers use my apparatus to produce too much of this electromagnetic energy here, instead of concentrating all their attention on designing an apparatus which will impress a current upon the earth and not waste the power of the plant in an uneconomical process.
Counsel;

You say radio engineers put too much energy into the radiating part.  What, as a matter of fact, according to your conception, is the part of the energy that is received in the receivers in the present system?
Tesla;

That has been investigated.  Very valuable experiments have been made by Dr. Austin, who has measured the effects at a distance.  He has evolved a formula in agreement with the Hertz wave theory, and the energy collected is an absolutely vanishing quantity.  It is just enough to operate a very delicate receiver.  If it were not for such devices as are now in use, the audion, for instance, nothing could be done.  But with the audion, they magnify so that this infinitesimal energy they get is sufficient to operate the receiver.  With my system, I can convey to a distant point millions of times the energy they transmit.  [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, pp. 138-142] [End Quote]

Terrestrial Resonances:

It has been proposed that there are two forms of terrestrial resonance, Schumann resonance and (for lack of a better term) Earth resonance, both related to the diameter of the earth.  Schumann resonance is studied by observing the effects of lightning discharges upon the electrical condition of the earth, specifically the naturally occurring electric and magnetic fields.  Earth’s electrical condition can also be modified by artificial means, as did Tesla, by use of a properly tuned and configured electrical oscillator.  The world’s AC power distribution systems do this more or less continuously, to a limited degree.

Schumann resonance:

Fundamental period of resonant oscillation: shifts between 7.5 – 7.9 Hz. (Anderson, Bradford)

Q: 3 to 12 (Anderson, Bradford), “at least 100” (Sutton, John F. and Craig Spaniol, “A Measurement of the Magnetic Earth-Ionosphere Cavity Resonances in the 3-30 Hz. Range,” Proceedings of the 1988 International Tesla Symposium, Int’l Tesla Society, 1990, pp. 3–17-3–23

Wave description: “cavity wave” (Yost), “surface wave” (Wasser)

Detection: buried 3-component magnetic field sensors & multiple component elevated electric field sensors

Earth resonance:

Fundamental period of resonant oscillation: 11.76393 (Yost), 11.79 Hz. (Wasser) *

Q: [unknown]

Wave description: “electrodynamic wave” (Sommerfeld), “conductor wave” (Yost) “pressure wave” (Wasser),

Detection: buried 3-component magnetic field sensors & buried 3-component electric potential gradient sensors

[*] Fundamental period of resonant oscillation based upon round-trip time.

Some harmonic of the fundamental earth resonant frequency—up to approximately 25 – 35 kHz—is used for the oscillator frequency.  In this frequency range the around-the-world propagation efficiency is in the general area between 93 to 87%.  As the frequency is increased above this point, efficiency further decreases.  At 160 kHz the efficiency falls below 10%. [Corum, K. L. and J. F. Corum, “Nikola Tesla, Lightning Observations and Stationary Waves,”Proceedings of the 1994 Colorado Springs Tesla Symposium, 1994, Appendix II, “The Zenneck Surface Wave”]  The oscillatory transformer provides the high voltage alternating current needed to periodically charge the transmitter’s elevated terminal.  A monochromatic subcarrier signal is then added.  This is in the form of an abrupt lower frequency electrical impulse applied at a rate approaching the fundamental earth resonance frequency.  Higher frequency impulses, above the oscillator frequency are also added at every harmonic of the low frequency subcarrier impulse, be it the fundamental earth resonance frequency or some lower harmonic of same. [Corum & Corum]  While the following quote refers to the use of an RF alternator in conjunction with a resonance transformer to produce continuous waves, it appears to be applicable to the excitation of earth resonance modes as well.

I reduced the number of poles, I think, in 1901.  But then I reduced it for the purpose of generating currents of higher frequency.  If I had a great number of poles, I could not realize my idea, because these poles would come in quick succession and not produce a rate of change comparable to the rate of change which is obtainable by the discharge of a condenser owing to a sudden break of the dielectric.  That is to say, a blow.  It has to be a blow, you see.  I had to place my poles comparatively far apart, then run them at excessive speed and generate comparatively few impulses, but each of those impulses are of such tremendous intensity that the dynamo is practically short-circuited.  That gave me a blow which replaced the arc.  And then, of course, there remained to be perfected a scheme enabling me to get the energy of the alternator in the most economical manner, in high harmonics.  That is not known, at least I have not seen anything of that kind in literature, and I believe that if anybody would attempt it without the devices which I have invented, he could not get much of the energy in high harmonics. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 15]

The system would be composed of two or more type-one transmitter/receiver signal-generating facilities, each contributing energy to the entire network to a greater or lesser degree.  The resulting wave complex would be the combination of multiple electrical oscillations ranging from the fundamental earth resonance frequency or some low harmonic thereof, the oscillator frequency, and higher frequency impulses extending, possibly, to the upper limit of the radio frequency spectrum.   The elevated terminal acting as an antenna might be capable of directly launching the higher frequency components of the wave complex as electromagnetic radiation, providing localized radio-frequency signal coverage.  If true, this might provide an opportunity for locally originated programming that would be associated only with a local source or generator, to the exclusion of other signal-generating facilities operating on the same frequencies.

Operating Frequencies

At Wardenclyffe Tesla operated at frequencies from 1,000 Hz to 100 kHz.  He found the frequency range up to 30 – 35 kHz, “to be most economical.” [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, pp. 143, 155]  In operation, the system would have generated and sustained a wave complex . . .

Based upon an analysis of the Colorado Springs Notes and other sources [including Corum & Corum] it appears a basic World System oscillator would develop a wave complex with an extremely low frequency (ELF) component in the 6 – 1000 Hz range [obtained with an alternator, NTAC, p. 155] plus a very low frequency (VLF) component around 25 – 35 kHz.  Tesla specified a frequency of 925 Hz for power transmission in the patents “System of Transmission of Electrical Energy,” U.S. Patent No. 645,576, dated March 20, 1900 and “Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy,” U.S. Patent No. 649,621, dated May 15, 1900.

For such a low frequency, to which I shall resort only when it is indispensable to operate motors of the ordinary kind under the conditions above assumed, I would use a secondary of fifty miles in length.

World System Apparatus

The Telecommunications Transmitting / Receiving Plant

Minimally implemented, a type-one transmission system requires two synchronized type-one electrical oscillators, each consisting of an appropriate radio-frequency power supply connected to the earth and a vertically oriented top-loaded helical resonator.  In operation a pulsed electrical potential is applied to each of the two helical resonators creating, at each location, an oscillating magnetic field.  In turn, each oscillating magnetic field induces an oscillating electric field.  Together the oscillating electric and magnetic fields create weakly to highly ionized plasma in the vicinity of each resonator.  [If the two resonators have a 180deg phase relationship with each other they are optimally aligned for connection of their respective magnetic fields.]  In addition to the inductively coupled discharge created plasma, conditions also exist for the creation of capacitively coupled discharge plasma between the two respective elevated terminals.  This is the “aurora” effect described by Tesla in the 1916 interview.

I have constructed and patented a form of apparatus which, with a moderate elevation of a few hundred feet, can break the air stratum down.  You will then see something like an aurora borealis across the sky, and the energy will go to the distant place. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 110]

Each plant would be about the size of the Wardenclyffe prototype, with multiple resonators, a fixed elevated terminal and a high-power local oscillator.  Each would have very wide bandwidth Internet and telephone network interfaces and be permanently connected with providers of radio and television programming.

The Electrical Power Distribution Plant

A grounded magnifying transmitter probably larger than the Wardenclyffe prototype with fewer resonators, a fixed elevated terminal plus a high-power local oscillator.  Located near sources of energy such as large waterfalls, wind farms, solar power plants and developed sources of geothermal energy, also oil fields, coal mines, etc.  May be comprised of two type-one transmitters in relatively close proximity to each other, forming a single type-two transmitter.

The Helical Resonator

The helical resonator is involved in making the above-ground portion of the launching structure resonant at the operating frequency but it is not an antenna-loading coil. [Corum & Corum]  The coil is also involved in launching of the ‘current wave’, i.e., ground current and associated surface wave; (see Fritz Lowenstein, lecture before the IRE, 1915 (find it)Tesla Primer and Handbook, Ch. 2, Corum & Corum.)

The Elevated Terminal

The elevated terminal of a Tesla transmitter/receiver facility, referred to by some as an “isotropic capacitance,” does not exist in total isolation from the environment; it is coupled to its surroundings.  According to the patent SYSTEM FOR TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY and Tesla’s article THE TRUE WIRELESS there is an interaction between the elevated terminals of the transmitter and the receiver facilities involving electrostatic induction and, in some cases, true electrical conduction through plasma.  In operation the elevated terminal functions as one plate a capacitor.  In opposition to the terminal is all other matter in the environment, especially on the earth’s surface, including the receiver’s elevated terminal.  The terminal serves two purposes: first, in conjunction with the earth’s surface, especially in the locality of the transmitter, it acts as a charge reservoir.  Secondly it is one of two capacitor plates, the other plate being the elevated terminal of the receiving facility, with which it acts in conjunction.  In a high-power system they jointly act as a high voltage discharge terminals for the formation of capacitively coupled discharge plasma with interconnection taking place through the upper level atmosphere.

. . . The elevated terminal charged to a high potential induces an equal and opposite charge in the earth and there are thus Q lines giving an average current I = 4Qn which circulates locally and is useless except that it adds to the momentum.  A relatively small number of lines q however, go off to great distance and to these corresponds a mean current of Ie = 4qn to which is due the action at a distance.  The total average current in the antenna is thus Im = 4Qn + 4qn and its intensity is no criterion for the performance.  The electric efficiency of the antenna is q/Q+q and this is often a very small fraction. [“ The True Wireless ” Electrical Experimenter, May 1919]

In operation, a strong electrostatic field is produced around a Tesla transmitter/receiver facility.  Field lines extend outward from the elevated terminal to come in contact with other objects in the environment.  While more or less a majority of the field lines of a type-one transmitter are associated with nearby objects, some of them, in theory, are associated with the elevated terminal of the other plant.

The Improved Elevated Terminal

The 1914 patent “Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy” refers to an improved elevated or free terminal.

Referring to the accompanying drawing, the figure is a view in elevation and part section of an improved free terminal and circuit of large surface with supporting structure and generating apparatus. . . . A part of the improvements which form the subject of this specification, the transmitting circuit, in its general features, is identical with that described and claimed in my original Patents Nos. 645,576 and 649,621. . . . [Dr. Nikola Tesla  Complete Patents, p. 436]

Tesla’s work was directed towards the development of a system that combined wireless telecommunications and electrical power transmission, the communications component being Tesla’s initial goal.  While electrical power transmission was viewed as being of greater importance, the attempt at its large-scale implementation would have taken place after the feasibility of the basic concept had been established.

The currents are proportionate to the potentials which are developed under otherwise equal conditions.  If you have an antenna of a certain capacity charged to 100,000 volts, you will get a certain current; charged to 200,000 volts, twice the current.  When I spoke of these enormous potentials, I was describing an industrial plant on a large scale because that was the most important application of these principles [the wireless transmission of electrical power], but I have also pointed out in my patents that the same principles can be applied to telegraphy and other purposes.  That is simply a question of how much power you want to transmit. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 145]

When the system as configured for telecommunications purposes only, the potential of each elevated terminal might be relatively low.  The energy flow between the elevated terminals is by means of electrostatic induction.  [What if the distance between facilities is greater than one wavelength?]

For high power energy transmission by true electrical conduction, a very high potential on the elevated terminal is needed in order to break down the insulating stratum around and above each plant.  As the potential is increased a point will eventually be reached at which charge on the terminal will ‘break out’ and form what Tesla called “streamers.”   Once this fault situation occurs, the potential drops and the system goes out of tune.

In this experiment, the voltage might have been something like 7 or 8 million volts, but I want to tell you, though, that I am referring to the maximum potential.  The moment you get these enormous streamers the potential drops.  I mean that was the breaking potential. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 112]

The maximum potential can be increased by the prevention of streamers.  The 1914 patent shows an improved terminal that achieved this by modifying the terminal’s smooth surface with closely spaced hemispherical attachments.

A further improved terminal wasn’t available until the mid 1930s, at which time the following announcement appeared, “Tesla Prepares to Send Power Without Wires, Inventor, 80, Announces Solution of Problem He Worked on for 35 Years.  Earth Will Carry Current.  100-Million-Volt Plant to be Build in Foreign Land,” (N. Y. Herald Tribune, July 27, 1936).  It was the vacuum tube studded elevated terminal, disclosed in “New Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-Dispersive Energy Through Natural Media,” that freed him to make this statement.

Tesla’s improved terminal, circa 1936, consists of 1) a spherical frame, 2) an insulating bulb with an electrode of thin sheet metal suitably rounded and a metallic socket, exhausted to the highest vacuum obtainable, attached with 3) a nut fastener.   [Nikola Tesla’s Teleforce and Telegeodynamics Proposals, p. 22]

The elevated terminal is involved in the launching of a plasma wave, a “disturbance of a plasma away from equilibrium, involving oscillations of the plasma’s constituent particles and/or the electromagnetic field.”  Propagation of the ion acoustic wave in plasma conforms with Tesla’s description of “the universal medium . . . a gaseous body in which only longitudinal pulses can be propagated, involving alternating compressions and expansions similar to those produced by sound waves in the air.  (See THE GENERATION OF PLASMA WAVES AT THE EARTH’S SURFACE . . . )  (This is not to say that plasma is a requirement for the propagation of radio waves.)  The high-power pulsed magnetic field produced by the helical-resonator transmitting element may also be involved in the conduction process.

Keeping in mind that plasma is an electrical conductor with finite resistivity, when attempting to simulate the World System, the mathematical model must incorporate a value for the effective resistance between the two elevated terminals as well as earth resistance and that of the ground connections.

The Connection to Earth

In 1916 Tesla described the underground portion of the Wardenclyffe tower in this way,

In this system that I have invented it is necessary for the machine to get a grip of the earth, otherwise it cannot shake the earth.  It has to have a grip on the earth so that the whole of this globe can quiver, and to do that it is necessary to carry out a very expensive construction.  I had in fact invented special machines. . . . There was a big shaft about ten by twelve feet goes down about one hundred and twenty feet and this was first covered with timber and the inside with steel and in the center of this there was a winding stairs going down and in the center of the stairs there was a big shaft again through which the current was to pass . . . And then the real expensive work was to connect that central part with the earth, and there I had special machines rigged up which would push the iron pipe, one length after another, and I pushed these iron pipes, I think sixteen of them, three hundred feet, and then the current through these pipes takes hold of the earth.  Now that was a very expensive part of the work, but it does not show on the tower, but it belongs to the tower. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p. 203]

Tesla System Receivers

Regarding the potential at the receiver’s elevated terminal it is related to the potential at the transmitter’s elevated terminal.  As we are speaking of electrical conduction, I2R losses should be applicable in this case.  The resistance is that of the intervening plasma between the two elevated terminals and of the earth between the two ground terminals.  There is also a voltage divider in that some of the current associated with the elevated terminal passes to ground and back to the transmitter’s ground terminal.  This current, “circulates locally and is useless except that it adds to the momentum.” [“ The True Wireless ” Electrical Experimenter, May 1919]

[Switching receiver patent description, charge accumulating capacitor.]

The Wavemeter

This consists of a grounded helical resonator with a widely adjustable elevated terminal and no local oscillator.  It may have a small adjustable ferrite core.  Incorporates an e-field probe detector with a high impedance amplifier or a few secondary turns with a low impedance amplifier.  May incorporate active antenna circuitry (see Regeneration Revisited and John F. Sutton’s U.S. Patent No. 5,296,866, Active antenna (March 22, 1994).

[Abstract: An antenna, which may be a search coil, connected to an active circuit which provides negative impedances, each of which is of the order of magnitude of the positive impedances which characterize this active antenna. In one embodiment, one coil terminal is connected to an amplifier which drives a voltage-controlled current source that, in turn, drives a feedback coil which is coupled to the original search coil. In another embodiment that additionally exhibits an advantageous signal-to-noise characteristic, both terminals of the search coil are connected to a differential amplifier that, in turn, provides the control voltage for a current source, which, as in the first embodiment, drives the feedback winding. The feedback coil is wound to provide positive feedback by additive superposition of both coil fields. The positive feedback provided by the feedback current lowers the antenna impedance which, in turn, increases the effective area of the antenna. This circuit configuration incorporates a differentiation inherent in the fundamental characteristic of a coil, which is sensitive to the rate-of-change of the magnetic field. The outstanding stability of this active antenna may be attributed to the inherent accuracy of this differentiation performed by the antenna coil, to the particular circuit configurations and to the particular form of feedback employed.]

The Dedicated or Domestic Receiver

A grounded resonator with an adjustable elevated terminal plus a low-power local oscillator.  Uses an e-field probe detector, or a secondary winding for drawing off small amounts of power.

The Electrical Power Distribution Plant Substation

A grounded magnifying transmitter perhaps larger than the Wardenclyffe prototype with fewer resonators, a fixed elevated terminal plus a medium-to-high-power local oscillator.  Is linked to wired power distribution grid.

The Evolution of Tesla’s Air-Ground System for Wireless Energy Transmission

The air-ground system evolved from Tesla’s one-wire method of energy transmission over a circuit that was not closed “in the ordinary acceptance of the term.”  While there is no physically solid second conductor connected back to the generator, the capacitor plates at both ends of the “one-wire” circuit couple to its counterpart or opposite member directly or through ground, depending upon the distance between the two terminals, thus constituting the return circuit.

This, as well as the description “air-ground method” implies that the system depends upon the existence of a connection between the elevated terminals.  Additional support to this assertion is found in the Electrical Transformerpatent covering the Tesla coil, which describes electrical power transmission through a single wire with ground for return.

Tesla’s 1897 patent drawing showing the transmission of electrical energy through one wire with ground for return.

Also, the apparatus used in the 1898 Patent Office demonstration at the Houston St. lab involved the transmission of electrical energy in industrial amounts through a rarified medium with ground for return.

Tesla’s diagram representing the arrangement of apparatus as demonstrated to U.S. patent examiner G.D. Seeley in the Houston Street laboratory.  This showed the transmission of electrical energy through a rarefied atmosphere with ground for return.

Tesla’s 1900 patent drawing showing a system for the wireless transmission and reception of electrical energy through the earth’s rarefied upper atmosphere with ground for return.  [Transmitter type-one, C/S #1]

My experiments . . . in Colorado showed that at a height of 1 mile it is plenty enough rarefied to break down under the stress and conduct the current to the distant points. . . . My patent says that I break down the atmosphere “at or near” the terminal.  If my conducting atmosphere is 2 or 3 miles above the plant, I consider this very near the terminal as compared to the distance of my receiving terminal, which may be across the Pacific. . . . I have constructed and patented a form of apparatus which, with a moderate elevation of a few hundred feet, can break the air stratum down.  You will then see something like an aurora borealis across the sky, and the energy will go to the distant place. . . . An apparatus which permits displacing a certain quantity of electricity in the terminal—we shall say so many units—will produce an electric potential at a distance of 5 miles, and the fall of electric potential per centimeter will be equal to the quantity of electricity divided by the square of the distance. . . . Now, I have satisfied myself that I can construct plants in which I may produce, per kilometer of the atmosphere, electric differences of potential of something like 50,000 or 60,000 volts, and at 50,000 or 60,000 volts that atmosphere must break down and will become conductive. [NTAC]

Furthermore, Tesla made the following statement regarding his theory and technique of energy transmission.

The earth is 4,000 miles radius.  Around this conducting earth is an atmosphere.  The earth is a conductor; the atmosphere above is a conductor, only there is a little stratum between the conducting atmosphere and the conducting earth which is insulating. . . . Now, you realize right away that if you set up differences of potential at one point, say, you will create in the media corresponding fluctuations of potential.  But, since the distance from the earth’s surface to the conducting atmosphere is minute, as compared with the distance of the receiver at 4,000 miles, say, you can readily see that the energy cannot travel along this curve and get there, but will be immediately transformed into conduction currents, and these currents will travel like currents over a wire with a return.  The energy will be recovered in the circuit, not by a beam that passes along this curve and is reflected and absorbed, . . . but it will travel by conduction and will be recovered in this way. [NTAC]

Tesla’s diagram explanatory of the transmission of electrical energy by the ground air method.  This was first put before Lord Kelvin in the Houston Street laboratory in September 1897.

It should be noted that in describing the “atmosphere above” as being conducting he roughly predicted the existence of the ionosphere and the earth-ionosphere cavity.

Appendix

The Type-one verses the Type-two Transmitter

The question arises as to the cause of the failure reported the 1903 letter to J.B. Morgan.  Is the two-coil/two ground concept fundamentally flawed, or was the problem in its’ single-tower implementation?  It’s possible the earlier type-two transmitter tests were performed using plant’s chimney-mounted lightning protector as an elevated capacitance in conjunction with the laboratory-side pancake coil, aka the New York oscillator.  In this case the tower-side transmitting element would have been a passive extra-coil helical resonator connected to the tower’s cupola and grounding structure.  This would have represented a true type-two transmitter, however the amount of power that could have been processed by the alternator-driven oscillator would have been limited by its’ relatively small size.

In the 1925 paper “Wireless power system using the surface of the earth as a conductor,” John B Flowers, H.L. Curtis, J.H. Dillinger, Radio Laboratory, Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. [Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature, pp. 22-23] a statement is made regarding the feasibility of using 60 cycles-per-second as the systems fundamental frequency.  An electric generator is connected with wires to ground points 750 miles apart.  Although not a true Tesla wireless apparatus, the design does suggest a type-two transmitter.]

In 1932 journalist J.J. O’Neill conducted an interview with Tesla in which he makes a distinction between the transmission of electrical energy by atmospheric conduction and earth resonance principles.

I also asked him if he is still at work on the project which he inaugurated in the ’90’s of transmitting power wirelessly anywhere on earth.  He is at work on it, he said, and it could be put into operation. . . . He at that time announced two principles which could be used in this project.  In one the ionizing of the upper air would make it as good a conductor of electricity as a metal [using a type-one transmitter].  In the other the power would be transmitted by creating “standing waves” in the earth by charging the earth with a giant electrical oscillator [of the type-two design] that would make the earth vibrate electrically in the same way a bell vibrates mechanically when it is struck with a hammer.  “I do not use the plan involving the conductivity of the upper strata of the air,” he said, “but I use the conductivity of the earth itself, and in this I need no wires to send electrical energy to any part of the globe.” [“Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor May Transmit Power ‘Round’ Earth,” Brooklyn Eagle , July 10, 1932, John J. A. O’Neill ]

In 1934 the following drawing of a large type-two transmitter appeared in an article on wireless power transmission.

The caption reads, “Nikola Tesla, electrical wizard, foresees the day when airplanes will be operated by radio-transmitted power supplied by ground stations, as shown . . .” [Transmitter type-two, C/S #6; “Radio Power Will Revolutionize the World,” Modern Mechanix and Inventions, July 1934, Tesla Said, pp. 261-266]

This suggests that the problem was, in fact, the single-tower implementation, and at some point prior to 1932 Tesla validated the type-two launching structure configuration using two properly spaced top-loaded helical resonators.

One additional observation needs to be made before leaving the subject of the initial Wardenclyffe circuit configuration.  Some descriptions of the Wardenclyffe tower include a vertical conductor extending from the bottom of the 120 shaft below the tower up to the under side of the cupola.  One account states,

Excitation currents pulsed through a 16-section telescoping shaft that rose under air pressure 300 feet from the bottom of the well to contact the spherical terminal. . . . [Anderson, 1969]

and another,

Radio station on Long Island consisted of a large building . . . and a special antenna tower suspended on a wooden pyramid of several meters in diameter with a changeable height position by means of a metal tube which was telescopically vertically moveable, was emerging from a cylindrical 30 m deep hole in the ground beneath the pyramid. . . . [Popovic, 1976]

A direct electrical connection between the elevated isotropic capacitance and the subterranean ground connection would be consistent with the type-two transmitter design.  Note that the as-built tower legs were made of wood—not metal—necessitating the conducting shaft.  Also, placement of the ground connection at the bottom of the 120-foot excavation might have been a way to partially compensate for height lost in the initial design changes.  Tesla’s original plans called for an overall tower height of 600 feet.

Relative Transmission Efficiency, Tesla vs. Marconi Systems

Based upon Tesla’s own descriptions as well as theoretical considerations it should be simple matter to discriminate between the effects created at a distance by a high-power Marconi-type Hertz-wave radio transmitter and those produced by a Tesla type-one transmitter of equivalent power.  One would expect the space waves arriving from a Hertz-wave transmitter to generally conform to the well-known inverse-square power relationship defined in radio propagation theory.  If Tesla’s claims are correct, the throughput energy of a full-scale type-one Tesla transmitter-receiver pair should exceed that of a Hertz-wave radio system by more than six orders of magnitude.

Counsel;

You say radio engineers put too much energy into the radiating part.  What, as a matter of fact, according to your conception, is the part of the energy that is received in the receivers in the present system?

Tesla;

That has been investigated.  Very valuable experiments have been made by Dr. Austin, who has measured the effects at a distance.  He has evolved a formula in agreement with the Hertz wave theory, and the energy collected is an absolutely vanishing quantity.  It is just enough to operate a very delicate receiver.  If it were not for such devices as are now in use, the audion, for instance, nothing could be done.  But with the audion, they magnify so that this infinitesimal energy they get is sufficient to operate the receiver.  With my system, I can convey to a distant point millions of times the energy they transmit. [ntac, pp. 141-142]

Tesla surely made real-world physical measurements in support of this statement.

At present it may be sufficient, for the guidance of experts, to state that the waste of energy is proportional to the product of the square of the electric density induced by the transmitter at the earth’s surface and the frequency of the currents.  Expressed in this manner it may not appear of very great practical significance.  But remembering that the surface density increases with the frequency it may also be stated that the loss is proportional to the cube of the frequency.  With waves 300 meters in length economic transmission of energy is out of the question, the loss being too great.  When using wave-lengths of 6,000 meters it is still noticeable though not a serious drawback.  With wave-lengths of 12,000 meters it becomes quite insignificant and on this fortunate fact rests the future of wireless transmission of energy.  [Electrical Review and Western Electrician, July 6, 1912]

The conventional radio surface wave, i.e., the Norton Surface Wave, is the result of electrical currents induced in the ground by refraction of a portion of the reflected-wave component of the ground-wave at the earth-atmosphere interface.  In contrast, the surface wave associated with Tesla’s World System is the result of electrical ground currents flowing between two discrete points on the earth’s surface.  Unlike the ground-hugging surface-wave component of the space wave that is excited by a conventional radio transmitter, and while not yet verified by mathematical modeling and subsequent physical verification, Tesla’s surface wave would not be expected to diminish as significantly as the distance from the source facility increases (see Rediscovering the Zenneck Surface Wave).

It is indispensable to first dispel a few errors under which electricians have labored for years, owing to the tremendous momentum imparted to the scientific mind through the work of Hertz which has hampered independent thought and experiment.  To facilitate understanding, attention is called to the annexed diagrams in which Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 represent, respectively, the well known arrangements of circuits in the Hertz-wave system and my own.  In the former the transmitting and receiving conductors are separated from the ground through spark gaps, choking coils, and high resistances.  This is necessary, as a ground connection greatly reduces the intensity of the radiation by cutting off half of the oscillator and also by increasing the length of the waves from 40 to 100 percent, according to the distribution of capacity and inductance.  In the system devised by me a connection to earth, either directly or through a condenser is essential.  The receiver, in the first case, is affected only by rays transmitted through the air, conduction being excluded; in the latter instance there is no appreciable radiation and the receiver is energized through the earth while an equivalent electrical displacement occurs in the atmosphere. [Nikola Tesla, Electrical Review and Western Electrician, July 6, 1912]

Loss Mechanism

In regards to the World System, it is certain there would be radio waves associated with the propagating earth currents.  Tesla recognized this phenomenon, stating that the resulting electromagnetic radiation constitutes a mechanism for the loss of energy from the system.

The attractive feature of this plan was that the intensity of the signals should diminish very little with the distance, and, in fact, should not diminish at all, if it were not for certain losses occurring, chiefly in the atmosphere.  [“Tesla Describes His Efforts in Various Fields of Work,” Electrical Review – N. Y., Nov, 30, 1898]

Achieving Satisfactory Explanations of the Two Tesla Systems:

The Investigation of Tesla-Type Wireless Propagation [Mathematical modeling and physical validation]

Tesla spent a lifetime trying to explain how his systems work with only minimal use of mathematics.  He felt the physical model for the propagation of electromagnetic waves, i.e., “radio waves” developed by Hertz was inadequate for the task.

It was a perfectly well established fact that a circuit, traversed by a periodic current, emitted some kind of space waves, but we were in ignorance as to their character.  He [Hertz] apparently gave an experimental proof that they were transversal vibrations in the ether.  Most people look upon this as his great accomplishment.  To my mind it seems that his immortal merit was not so much in this as in the focusing of the investigators’ attention on the processes taking place in the ambient medium.  The Hertz-wave theory, by its fascinating hold on the imagination, has stifled creative effort in the wireless art and retarded it for twenty-five years.  But, on the other hand, it is impossible to over-estimate the beneficial effects of the powerful stimulus it has given in many directions. [Electrical Experimenter, May 1919]

The best way to find out if the Tesla systems work as he said they do is to repeat the original experiments, that is to say, reproduce the appropriate apparatus and collect the data.  The first step might be to adopt the existing models that accurately describe the operation of conventional low-frequency Hertz-wave wireless systems.  These could be used as a starting point from which to create models of the Tesla systems using the mathematics of electromagnetism in combination with the academic discipline of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD).  MHD studies the dynamics of electrically-conducting fluids, such as plasma, and their interactions with magnetic fields.  MHD theory is relevant at relatively low frequencies and for distance scales larger than the Larmor radius.  The equations describing MHD are a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics and Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism.  [Source: Wikipedia see also Plasma Dictionary]

Maxwells Equations express how electric charges produce electric fields (Gauss’s law) and how changing magnetic fields produce electric fields (Faraday’s law of induction).  They also explain how electrical currents produce magnetic fields and the experimental absence of magnetic charges (Ampère’s law).  The Navier-Stokes equations are a set of nonlinear partial differential equations that describe the flow of fluids such as liquids and gases.  These differential equations have to be solved for simultaneously. This is too complex or impossible to do symbolically in all but the most trivial cases.  For real-world problems, numeric solutions are found using supercomputers.  [Source:Wikipedia]

Tesla’s Magnifying Transmitter:
Wardneclyffe Station, The Factual History –

In 1901, Tesla purchased 200  acres on Long Island’s north shore from James Warden. These 200 acres were part of an 1,800 acre potato farm along what is today Route 25A in Shoreham, NY.

The site became known as Wardenclyffe, after the former owner. Here, Tesla established what would become his only remaining laboratory building.

Previously, after emigrating to the United States in 1884, Tesla had worked on all of his major projects at various laboratory sites. These included Pittsburgh, PA; New York City, NY; Orange, NJ; Colorado Springs, CO; and finally Wardenclyffe, NY.

In April, 1901, the Wardenclyffe Post Office was established in the town; in l906 the town became the Village of Shoreham.

The purpose of the Wardenclyffe laboratory was the establishment of a wireless telegraphy plant.

The prestigious architectural firm of McKin, Mead, and White was contracted to design the laboratory and transmitter tower (187 feet high above ground and 120 feet deep below ground level). Stanford White became the architect for the buding.

Tesla’s plan had the initial backing of the financier J.P. Morgan. The red brick laboratory building can still be seen on the north side of Route 25A between the intersection of Randall Road and the Shoreham Fire Department.

I have just visited the site, as of May 15th, 2008, and it is still stunning to visualize what happened on this very ground. I stand in awe at Tesla’s achievements over one hundred years ago. More on directions for visiting the site on a later page…

During the last week of July 1903, residents around the Shoreham site experienced what was to be the only testing of Tesla’s equipment at this facility. Note that Tesla had Wardenclyffe Station OPERATIONAL. After these tests, Tesla NEVER went back. Why???

Several days after these tests, his dream was destroyed when creditors from Westinghouse confiscated his heavier equipment for nonpayment for services rendered.

In addition, James Warden sued Tesla for nonpayment of back taxes. In 1917, the 187-foot tower was destroyed by dynamite explosion as ordered by the U.S. government. It was demolished the same year by the Smiley Steel Company.

In 1939, the Peerless Photo Compa  ny purchased the property to manufacture emulsions for photographic film and paper. Additional buildings were constructed. In 1969, it became Agfa-Gevaert, Inc., at that time a division of the Bayer Corporation.

In 1987, manufacturing ended, and the facility was closed down.

Since then, the entire facility has remained dormant. It is noteworthy that, in 1967, the laboratory building was the first to be listed on the Town of Brookhaven registry of historic sites.

Lots more information coming on Tesla’s Wardenclyffe Station, and the Magnifying Transmitter.

The Wireless Transmission Of Electrical Power

 It is possible that Nikola Tesla is best known for his remarkable statements regarding the wireless transmission of electrical power. His first efforts towards this end started in 1891 and were intended to simply “disturb the electrical equilibrium in the nearby portions of the earth… to bring into operation in any way some instrument.” In other words the object of his experiments was simply to produce effects locally and detect them at a distance.

By 1899 the electrical potential of his transmitter had increased to the point that more room was needed for the sake of safety. This and other considerations led him to temporarily shift his wireless experiments to a location just outside of Colorado Springs. At this Colorado “Experimental Station” Tesla had some early success in wireless power transmission. One photograph shows that a small incandescent lamp was lighted by means of a resonant circuit grounded on one end, all the energy being drawn through the earth (from a nearby transmitter). In 1907, Tesla even went as far as to make this statement: “ … to make the little filament glow, the entire surface of the planet, two hundred million square miles, must be strongly electrified. This calls for peculiar electrical activities, hundreds of times greater than those involved in the lighting of an arc lamp through the human body ” (a far more spectacular demonstration). What impresses him most, however, is the knowledge that “ the little lamp will spring into the same brilliancy anywhere on the globe, there being no appreciable diminution of the effect with the increase of distance from the transmitter”

It is not at all clear that Tesla was referring to effects produced by his large Colorado transmitter. It is quite possible that he was writing about what could be done with an even bigger transmitter such as the one that he was developing in New York. If the Wardenclyffe communications facility had been finished, the 187 foot tall mushroom-shaped tower would have permanently housed a set of large coils including an immense helical resonator that would have served as the main transmitting element. Directly below the wooden tower there was a 120 foot shaft where deep underground Tesla had installed a radial array of iron pipes that served as a connection between the oscillator and the earth (note the importance of this last sentance – iron pipes forming a connection to the Earth).

The Wardenclyffe plant was a major milestone in Tesla’s researches into the application of alternating electrical currents to wireless communications and power transmission, an effort which drew a considerable amount of Tesla’s attention during the period between 1891 and 1912. In the article “The Future of the Wireless Art” which appeared in Wireless Telegraphy & Telephony, 1908, Tesla made the following statement regarding the Wardenclyffe project on which he was then working: “ As soon as completed, it will be possible for a business man in New York to dictate instructions, and have them instantly appear in type at his office in London or elsewhere. He will be able to call up, from his desk, and talk to any telephone subscriber on the globe, without any change whatever in the existing equipment. An inexpensive instrument, not bigger than a watch, will enable its bearer to hear anywhere, on sea or land, music or song, the speech of a political leader, the address of an eminent man of science, or the sermon of an eloquent clergyman, delivered in some other place, however distant.”

Tesla continued, “ In the same manner any picture, character, drawing, or print can be transferred from one to another place. Millions of such instruments can be operated from but one plant of this kind. More important than this, however, will be the transmission of power, without wires, which will be shown on a scale large enough to carry conviction. These few indications will be sufficient to show that the wireless art offers greater possibilities than any invention or discovery heretofore made, and if the conditions are favorable, we can expect with certitude that in the next few years wonders will be wrought by its application. 

In the end, Tesla was never able to complete the Wardenclyffe plant, although he was able to conduct some performance tests. Nevertheless, if the above stated predictions were to be true, an interesting feature of Tesla’s World System for global communications, had it gone into full operation, would have been its capacity to provide small but usable quantities of electrical power at the location of the receiving circuits.

Wardenclyffe – The Creation Of A Monument To Nikola Tesla

The year was 1900 and following 9 productive months of wireless propagation research in Colorado, Nikola Tesla was anxious to put a mass of new found knowledge to work. His vision focused on the development of a prototype wireless communications station and research facility and he needed a site on which to build.  In 1901 he cast his eyes some 60 miles eastward to the north shore village of Woodville Landing. Only six years before the north branch of the Long Island Railroad had opened, reducing travel time to the locality from a horse drawn five hours to less than two. Seeing an opportunity in land development a western lawyer and banker by the name of James S. Warden had purchased 1400 acres in the area and started building an exclusive summer resort community known as Wardenclyffe-On-Sound.

With an opportunity for further development in mind, Warden offered Tesla a 200 acre section of this parcel lying directly to the south of the newly laid track. It was anticipated that implementation of Tesla’s system would eventually lead to the establishment of a “Radio City” to house the thousands of employees needed for operation of the facility. The proximity to Manhattan and the fairly short travel time between the two, along with the site’s closeness to a railway line must surely have been attractive features and Tesla accepted the offer.

The Wardenclyffe World Wireless facility as envisioned by Tesla was to have been quite different from present day radio broadcasting stations. While there was to be a great similarity in the apparatus employed, the method in which it was to be utilized would have been radically different. Conventional transmitters are designed so as to maximize the amount of power radiated from the antenna structure. Such equipment must process tremendous amounts of power in order to counteract the loss in field strength encountered as the signal radiates out from its point of origin. The transmitter at Wardenclyffe was being configured so as to minimize the radiated power.

The energy of Tesla’s steam driven Westinghouse 200 kW alternator was to be channeled instead into an extensive underground radial structure of iron pipe installed 120 feet beneath the tower’s base.

This was to be accomplished by superposing a low frequency baseband signal on the higher frequency signal coursing through the transmitter’s helical resonator.

The low frequency current in the presence of an enveloping corona-induced plasma of free charge carriers would have pumped the earth’s charge.

It is believed the resulting ground current and its associated wave complex would have allowed the propagation of wireless transmissions to any distance on the earth’s surface with as little as 5% loss due to radiation.

The terrestrial transmission line modes so excited would have supported a system with the following technical capabilities:

1.) Establishment of a multi-channel global broadcasting system with programming including news, music, etc;

2.) Interconnection of the world’s telephone and telegraph exchanges, and stock tickers;

3.) Transmission of written and printed matter, and data;

4.) World wide reproduction of photographic images;

5.) Establishment of a universal marine navigation and location system, including a means for the synchronization of precision timepieces;

6.) Establishment of secure wireless communications services.

The plan was to build the first of many installations to be located near major population centers around the world. If the program had moved forward without interruption, the Long Island prototype would have been followed by additional units the first of which being built somewhere along the coast of England. By the Summer of 1902 Tesla had shifted his laboratory operations from the Houston Street Laboratory to the rural Long Island setting and work began in earnest on development of the station and furthering of the propagation research. Construction had been made possible largely through the backing of financier J. Pierpont Morgan who had offered Tesla $150,000 towards the end of 1900.

By July 1904, however, this support had run out and with a subsequent major down turn in the financial markets Tesla was compelled to pursue alternative methods of financing. With funds raised through an unrecorded mortgage against the property, additional venture capital, and the sale of X-ray tube power supplies to the medical profession he was able to make ends meet for another couple of years. In spite of valiant efforts to maintain the operation, income dwindled and his employees were eventually dropped from the payroll.

Still, Tesla was certain that his wireless system would yield handsome rewards if it could only be set into operation and so the work continued as he was able. A second mortgage in 1908 acquired again from the Waldorf-Astoria proprietor George C. Boldt allowed some additional bills to be paid, but debt continued to mount and between 1912 and 1915 Tesla’s financial condition disintegrated. The loss of ability to make additional payments was accompanied by the collapse of his plan for high capacity trans-Atlantic wireless communications.

The property was foreclosed, Nikola Tesla honored the agreement with his debtor and title on the property was signed over to Mr. Boldt. The plant’s abandonment sometime around 1911-1912 followed by demolition and salvaging of the tower in 1917 essentially brought an end to this era. Tesla’s April 20, 1922 loss on appeal of the judgment completely closed the door to any further chance of his developing the site. Tesla had predicted that further advances would have permitted the wireless transmission of industrial amounts of electrical energy with minimal losses to any point on the earth’s surface. Had he been able to complete the prototype station on Long Island and use it to demonstrate the feasibility of wireless power transmission then a plan would have been implemented for the construction of a pilot plant for this larger system at Niagara Falls, site of the world’s first commercial three phase AC power plant.

How Nikola Tesla Was Deliberately Destroyed By J. P. Morgan!

Prologue

by Leslie R. Pastor
Nikola Tesla stated in precise language that it was possible to collect vast amounts of energy directly from the vacuum:

“Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point in the universe. This idea is not novel… We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus, who derives power from the earth; we find it among the subtle speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians…Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static or kinetic? If static our hopes are in vain; if kinetic – and this we know it is, for certain – then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature.” Nikola Tesla , in a speech in New York to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1891. Quoted from back cover of his biography, Margaret Cheney Tesla: Man Out of Time .

Again, Tesla , in a reiteration, during an address in 1897 commemorating his installation of AC generators at Niagara Falls , stated:

“We have to evolve means for obtaining energy from stores which are forever inexhaustible, to perfect methods which do not imply consumption and waste of any material whatever. I now feel sure that the realization of that idea is not far off. …the possibilities of the development I refer to, namely, that of the operation of engines on any point of the earth by the energy of the medium…” [ Nikola Tesla , during an address in 1897 commemorating his installation of generators at Niagara Falls.].

And once again, in more definitive language ultimately stated: “Whatever our resources of primary energy may be in the future, we must, to be rational, obtain it without consumption of any material.” [ Nikola Tesla , 1900].

For the uninitiated, Nikola Tesla , built and created, what many considered impossible, deriding him with ridicule, and a battle royal, known as the ‘war of the currents.’ He single-handedly, changed forever the myopic stupidity and lethargy of our former inventors and bankers, who refused to finance and fund his proposals, due to their prior investment in similar ‘novelty of fact’ discovery. Tesla , forever reshaped the ‘modern age,’ splitting the past from essentially the ‘horse and buggy’ era, giving us a world of ‘motors’ and ‘electrification’ unparalleled in human history.

To be crystal clear on this subject: Only one man accomplished this, in the history of the United States, Nikola Tesla , who with the support and aid of his benefactor, George Westinghouse, designed, built and ultimately installed the first hydro-electro power station based on alternating current, demonstrating that it was possible to light-up the entire United States (and ultimately, the entire planet) via this method. Tesla single-handedly established our ‘modern’ age.

Tom Bearden and I, together in a collaborative work, have provided a significant revelation regarding not just the suppression of Nikola Tesla, but the suppression of an energy system second to none, and it is this type of suppression, that is hindering the productive and resourceful freedom of the entire planet.

Article

The Deliberate Discard of Asymmetric Maxwellian Systems

Thus Preventing COP>1.0 and Self-Powering

Energy-from-the-Vacuum Systems

© T. E. Bearden and Leslie R. Pastor

21 June 2007

Foreword

This is the background of how the present electrical engineering model (and practice) was severely curtailed to exclude COP>1.0 electrical power systems taking their excess EM energy directly from their interaction with the active medium (the active vacuum/spacetime). The ruthless suppression of Nikola Tesla also set the stage for the major cartels continuing to suppress subsequent overunity inventors from the 1890s to the present day.

Introduction

Maxwell died in 1879 of stomach cancer, and at the time his own theory had not been accepted very much at all. Immediately the vectorists – notably Heaviside, Gibbs, and Hertz – began emasculatingMaxwell’s 20 quaternion-like equations in 20 unknowns , into the present highly simplified vector algebra of much lower group symmetry. (Quaternions also have a much higher group symmetry than tensors, for those who believe tensors are the answer). This occurred in the 1880s and 1890s. Heaviside’s equations were tentatively selected as the basis for the new electrical engineering, just being created and being slowly placed into our universities.

To see a glimpse of what can be done in quaternion EM, see T. W. Barrett, “ Tesla’s Nonlinear Oscillator-Shuttle-Circuit (OSC) Theory ,” Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, 16(1), 1991, p. 23-41. Barrett – one of the cofounders of ultrawideband radar – shows that EM expressed in quaternions allows shuttling and storage of potentials in circuits, and also allows additional EM functioning of a circuit that a conventional EM analysis cannot reveal. He shows that Tesla’s patented circuits did exactly this sort of deliberate “shuttling” and control of the potential energy, quite contrary to what is thought possible in our present regular circuits and theory.

Barrett was so impressed by the novelty of Tesla’s discoveries in this respect, that he extended Tesla’s methods and obtained two patents of his own – on processes still used in various special communications systems. [See Terence W. Barrett, “Active Signalling Systems,” U.S. Patent No. 5,486,833, Jan. 23, 1996. A signaling system in time-frequency space for detecting targets in the presence of clutter and for penetrating media. 14 U.S. patents cited. 22 claims, 37 drawing sheets. See also Terence W. Barrett, “Oscillator-Shuttle-Circuit (OSC) Networks for Conditioning Energy in Higher-Order Symmetry Algebraic Topological Forms and RF Phase Conjugation,” U.S. Patent No. 5,493,691. Feb. 20, 1996.].

About nine years or so after Maxwell’s death, Hertz performed some experiments which proved the speed of light in vacuum was essentially as predicted by Maxwell. That started the gradual acceptance ofMaxwell’s theory (i.e., particularly of the new highly truncated version of it).

Meanwhile, Nikola Tesla – the most important electrical scientist at the time – had discovered that the “medium” was active and that EM energy could be freely extracted directly from the active medium itself. He was hell-bent on doing just that and freely giving it to humanity.

J. P. Morgan and Thomas Edison were associates, and Morgan was backing Edison . The two later took Edison ’s electric company component and formed General Electric Company from it.

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the iron suppression of Tesla and his dream of giving the world free electrical energy extracted directly from the active medium (the active vacuum/spacetime itself). The electrical engineering model taught and studied in all our universities, beginning in the 1890s, was also ruthlessly curtailed to cast out all asymmetric Maxwellian systems and to also discard Heaviside’s odd and nearly incredible giant curled EM energy flow component actually accompanying every far more feeble Poynting energy flow in every EM system or circuit. Following the decimation of Tesla around the turn of the century, similar tactics have continued against follow-on inventors who discovered overunity systems and attempted to complete them and bring them to market. The suppression continues to this day, as can be attested by several living overunity inventors and inventor groups. For more than a century there has indeed been a giant, unwritten conspiracy of some of the most powerful cartels on earth, to continue the curtailment of the electrical engineering model and practice, and to continue to suppress overunity inventions and inventors.

Morgan Recognizes Tesla as a Mortal Enemy

Backed by Westinghouse, in the “electricity wars” Tesla had essentially annihilated J. P. Morgan and Edison on Edison’s intended DC electrical power cartel (a DC power plant every 2 miles!) by winning the contract for electrification of Niagara Falls and by installing the much more practical and much cheaper Tesla AC power system. Morgan, who was determinedly building up a giant financial empire, was also a very ruthless man who brooked no opposition. Morgan was funding Edison , and – after the destruction of their intended DC power empire by Tesla – Morgan recognized Tesla as a dangerous arch foe, and he was determined to destroy Tesla completely and remove him as a threat. He also realized that, if Tesla were permitted to give the world free EM energy extracted from the active medium and needing no fuel consumption, then much of Morgan’s own ambitions (which included future forays into the emerging giant fuel industry) would be totally thwarted. So Tesla had to go, and he had to go completely.

Economic Paralysis of Westinghouse

Westinghouse – a decent man who had liked Tesla and backed him when Tesla was using a pick and shovel to dig ditches to pay for his daily food – then fell on bad times, and was headed for bankruptcy. He had signed a contract with Tesla to pay Tesla very nice royalties on the AC power systems, and this represented several hundred millions of dollars. Westinghouse affirmed to Tesla that, even though he went bankrupt, he would pay Tesla as long as he, Westinghouse, had a dollar.

Tesla deeply appreciated Westinghouse’s warm friendship and Westinghouse backing him when no one else would. In a remarkable gesture of profound gratitude, Tesla simply tore up the contract, freeingWestinghouse and saving him from total financial ruin. But financially Westinghouse was unable to further fund large projects. This put Tesla right where Morgan wanted him.

How Morgan Trapped Tesla and Destroyed Him

Accordingly, to finance his dream of capturing free electrical energy from the active medium (from the vacuum/spacetime), Tesla had to turn to Morgan for financing. Morgan cynically agreed to finance Tesla (and the free energy project), but only after Tesla agreed to sign over 51% controlling interest in all his (Tesla’s) inventions. Tesla signed the agreement, and Morgan gave him about half of the money needed for the project at Long Island.

But Morgan had put Tesla in an iron trap from which there was no escape. He now controlled all Tesla’s inventions and their use, so he had Tesla paralyzed in that respect. And then later he simply refused to give Tesla the rest of the money needed to finish the project.

Consequently Tesla was halted. He declined financially and went totally bankrupt. He became totally destitute, reduced to living in a hotel room on the good graces of the hotel and a small patron or two. He never recovered from this absolute destitution until his death in 1943.

Thus Morgan totally crushed Tesla with an iron hand, thereby permanently removing Tesla as an unacceptable threat to Morgan’s empire and removing Tesla’s threat of producing and giving away free energy from the active medium.

All the above is well-known. But there is another part of the story that has escaped recognition. And that strange part of Morgan’s actions has profoundly affected all humanity and this entire planet and biosphere for more than a century.

The Rest of the Story

Morgan was not only ruthless; He was extremely thorough

When the “new” Heaviside equations were tentatively accepted as the new “Maxwell’s theory” to be taught in the electrical engineering just beginning to be set up in some universities etc., Morgan also directed his close scientific advisors to assure that this new “electrical theory” was harmless and did not contain or teach any of Tesla’s “energy freely from the active medium” systems. In other words, not only was it essential to suppress the present Tesla, but it was essential to suppress all the future “Teslas”.

At the time, scientists did not have scientific jobs waiting all over, as they do today. A scientist at the university was not really too well paid, and a really good scientist would often seek and obtain a job as a consultant to one of the rising industrialists such as Morgan. Indeed, Edison’s UK group already had an electrical scientist consultant of the highest caliber – Dr. John Ambrose Fleming in England . Flemingbecame consultant to the Edison group in 1881 and continued as such for 10 years. Fleming was an honorable and ethical man, and of course would not personally engage in skullduggery.

But all Morgan/Edison had to do was assign a sufficiently good scientist of their own to have a personal conversation with Fleming , since Fleming had studied directly and extensively under Maxwell himself.Fleming was thoroughly familiar with the characteristics of Maxwell’s theory, and he was also thoroughly familiar with Heaviside’s emasculated vector algebra subset. The conversation would just be a group theory conversation, pleasant but adroit, and it would draw out from Fleming (who was of highest character and ethics) the exact technical characteristics of the Heaviside model – particularly with respect to any potential EM system taking excess free energy from a hypothetical active medium.

Modern group theory was founded by the brilliant teenager Évariste Galois , whose work was later published and developed after Galois ’ unfortunate quick death on May 31, 1832 from being fatally wounded in a duel the previous day. The brilliant but erratic Galois was only 20 years old when he perished. But later his work was to profoundly affect mathematics, electrodynamics, physics, and all other sciences.

In April of 1830, Galois (1811-1832), a student at the École Normale, had published “An Analysis of a Memoir on the Algebraic Resolution of Equations” in the Bulletin de Ferussac. In June, he published “Notes on the Resolution of Numerical Equations” and “On the Theory of Numbers.” These and a later memoir make up what is now called Galois theory.

Galois’s manuscripts written just before his death in a duel, with added annotations by Joseph Liouville, were published in 1846 in the Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées. In 1870, with the publication of Camille Jordan’s Traité des Substitutions, group theory became a fully established and very important part of mathematics and science.

So in 1881, Fleming most certainly would have been well aware and conversant in group theory and the group symmetry of a given algebra, and thus of the characteristics of the systems that were included in a given algebraic model. The necessary knowledge to assess the Heaviside vector equations was already there when Morgan’s need (to suppress Nikola Tesla and to render the reduced Heaviside equations harmless) became paramount in the late 1880s.

The news about the group symmetry characteristics of Heaviside’s equations was not good. Those Heaviside vector equations still included some of Maxwell’s asymmetrical systems. And any EM system that freely receives energy from its active environment, and uses it to freely power its loads, is an asymmetrical Maxwellian system a priori. Hence engineers who were taught such a theory would be able to eventually design and build some of Tesla’s “free EM energy from the active medium” systems.

Morgan ’s response would have been short and direct: “Fix it!”

Obviously the fix was to simply remove the remaining asymmetry of the Heaviside model’s equations. It is not too hard a job to convince mathematicians to change asymmetry anyway, since they tend to worship “the beauty of symmetry” and asymmetry is considered “vulgar”.

Lorentz ’s Symmetrization of the Heaviside Equations

H. A. Lorentz was the man who was elicited to do the necessary “symmetrization” with ease, thereby accomplishing exactly what Morgan decreed to his own advisors that must be done: Get rid of those Tesla systems capable of taking and freely using EM energy from the active medium. H. A. Lorentz (with the “t”) simply lifted and used what L. V. Lorenz (without the “t”) had already done.

For the deliberate “fixing” of the already sharply curtailed Heaviside equations, see H. A. Lorentz, “La Théorie électromagnétique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants,” [The Electromagnetic Theory of Maxwell and its application to moving bodies], Arch. Néerl. Sci., Vol. 25, 1892, p. 363-552. [Also in H. A. Lorentz, Collected Papers, The Hague : Martinus Nijhoff, vol. 2, pp. 168-238, esp. p. 168.] This is the work that Lorentz cites later (in 1895) for his proof of the symmetrical regauging theorems (the two equations of symmetrical regauging).

This is the “symmetrization” (at the direction of J. P. Morgan) of the Heaviside equations that arbitrarily discarded all remaining asymmetrical Maxwellian systems – thus discarding all systems that receive excess EM energy freely from the “active medium” (active vacuum) and could use this free energy to power loads and themselves. With this “fix”, Morgan was assured that Tesla’s discovery of the active medium – and that EM energy could be extracted from it – would never be taught.

Electrical engineering was just beginning to be formed and started in those days, and so almost from its inception electrical engineering has used these “fixed” Heaviside equations (erroneously calling the resulting crippled model “Maxwell’s theory” which was and is a blatant falsity). Hence our electrical engineers – almost from the beginning – have thought, designed, built, and deployed only that subset of Maxwellian systems that self-destroy any use of excess energy from the vacuum, hence self-preventing having COP>1.0 and self-powering EM systems taking their excess input energy directly from the active vacuum.

It also prevented electrical engineers from realizing how their circuits are actually powered, and where the energy actually comes from. It does not come from cranking the shaft of the generator! For a clear exposé of how a symmetrical electrical power circuit and system kills its own source, and also to see what actually powers the external circuit in a generator-powered system, see “Figure 2. Operation of a Symmetrical Electrical Power System,” in T. E. Bearden, “Engineering the Active Vacuum: On the Asymmetrical Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Magnetic Vector Potential A vs. Magnetic Field B,” available at linkhttp://www.cheniere.org/techpapers/On%20the%20Aharonov-Bohm%20Effect1.doc .

For an excellent paper adroitly pointing out Lorentz’s propensity for using other people’s work but taking or receiving credit for it himself, see J. D. Jackson and L. B. Okun, “Historical roots of gauge invariance,” Reviews of Modern Physics , Vol. 73, July 2001, p. 663-680.

For the Lorentz symmetrical regauging as used by our present electrical engineers and classical electrodynamicists, see J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, Wiley, 1999. For the vacuum,Maxwell’s (Heaviside’s) equations reduce to two coupled equations, shown as equations 6.10 and 6/11 on p. 246. The Lorentz regauging condition is applied by Jackson on p. 240, resulting in two inhomogeneous wave equations given as equations 6.15 and 6.16. The Lorentz condition is given in equation 6.14 on p. 240.

Elimination of Heaviside’s Giant Curled EM Energy Flow Component

Lorentz also was apparently impressed a second time, in 1900, to further limit the application of the already seriously reduced symmetrized Heaviside equations, in order to specifically eliminate the newly discovered giant Heaviside curled Electro-Magnetic (EM) energy flow that – unknown to our present electrical engineers – accompanies every Poynting energy flow component (which is diverged into the circuit to power it), but is itself (the curled component) not diverged and thus is just wasted because it normally does not interact. The giant Heaviside curled EM energy flow component is more than a trillion times greater in magnitude than the accounted Poynting diverged EM energy flow component. Thus the Poynting energy flow theory in our present electrical engineering textbooks and curricula is only a pale shadow of the actual energy flowing in conjunction with an electrical system or circuit.

In Morgan’s view, it would simply not do to have all the future electrical engineers taught (and understand) that every generator already pours out more than a trillion times as much EM energy output as the mechanical shaft energy input we crank into the generator shaft! If they were to all know this, then inevitably some very sharp young doctoral candidates or post docs would figure out how to freely tap some of that available giant Heaviside curled energy flow component. And they would extract some of that giant energy flow and freely use it, thereby ushering in Tesla’s “free EM energy from the active medium” after all.

Here again, Morgan would simply have ordered the problem “fixed”

And again, Lorentz “fixed it” for him very easily, by introducing the standard little surface integral trick that retains the diverged small component (the Poynting component) but discards the huge nondiverged curled component. In other words, Lorentz altered the actually-used energy flow vector by throwing away that giant Heaviside component quite arbitrarily. Thus the Heaviside giant curled EM energy flow component is no longer accounted or even recognized in electrical engineering, but it still physically accompanies every accounted Poynting energy flow component in every EM system or circuit. [To see the dirty work, see H. A. Lorentz, Vorlesungen über Theoretische Physik an der Universität Leiden, Vol. V, Die Maxwellsche Theorie (1900-1902), Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H., Leipzig , 1931, “Die Energie im elektromagnetischen Feld,” p. 179-186. Figure 25 on p. 185 shows the Lorentz concept of integrating the Poynting vector around a closed cylindrical surface surrounding a volumetric element. This is the procedure which arbitrarily selects only a small diverged component of the energy flow associated with a circuit—specifically, the small Poynting component being diverged into the circuit to power it—and then treats that tiny component as the “entire” energy flow. Thereby Lorentz arbitrarily discarded all the extra huge Heaviside curled energy transport component which is usually not diverged into the circuit conductors at all, does not interact with anything locally, and is just wasted.]

Justification for Removal of the Giant Heaviside Curled Energy Flow Component

To justify getting rid of the giant curled (and usually nondiverged) Heaviside energy flow component, Lorentz smoothly and slyly stated that “it does nothing and so it has no physical significance.” And that same smooth statement is used by our scientific community to this day to justify the emasculation of the actual energy flow vector and to use only the feeble Poynting component of it. E.g., quoting Jackson :

“…the Poynting vector is arbitrary to the extent that the curl of any vector field can be added to it. Such an added term can, however, have no physical consequences. Hence it is customary to make the specific choice …” [ J. D. Jackson , Classical Electrodynamics, Second Edition, Wiley, 1975, p. 237].

Jackson’s statement (as is Lorentz’s statement) is correct only in a special relativistic situation, where vector analysis holds and the divergence of the curl is zero. However, if we deliberately introduce a general relativistic (GR) situation or subset, with synchronization of the output of that GR section and the input of the special relativistic section, then vector analysis fails and the divergence of the curl is not necessarily zero at all. So Jackson’s statement is correct only part of the time (which is usually most of the time since with rare exceptions most electrical power situations are special relativity situations!

Indeed, Jackson’s statement (and Lorentz’s little closed surface integration trick) can be deliberately violated at will, and it has been so violated since 1967 by the NRAM (negative resonance absorption of the medium) process in optical physics. We leave analysis of that process and where the excess energy comes from and how, for another day and paper. [See Thomas E. Bearden and Kenneth D. Moore, “Increasing the Coefficient of Performance of Electromagnetic Power Systems by Extracting and Using Excess EM Energy from the Heaviside Energy Flow Component”. This is a Provisional Patent Application, filed and obtained in Oct. 2005. It is now released into public domain and freely given away to the public domain.

Suffice it to say that NRAM optical physicists every year regularly perform true COP = 18 optimized experiments, without understanding the true source of the excess energy received from the active vacuum environment. To get their papers published, they are not allowed to use the term “excess emission” (they must use the mind-numbing term “negative absorption”. They are also not allowed to discuss the thermodynamics of the process (which when optimized in the IR or UV gives COP = 18), but can only point out the “increase in the reaction cross section” because of the self-resonance of the charged particles of the absorbing medium as compared to more normal static charged particles in a static absorbing medium.

Thus our electrical engineers and scientists today are totally unaware that every generator already pours out more than a trillion times as much EM energy flow from the vacuum, as is in the mechanical energy flow we input to the generator shaft. This even though in our leading universities our own NRAM optical physicists continue to experimentally prove it, without understanding where the excess EM energy comes from.

This second “fix” by Lorentz then finished Morgan’s suppression of the “new electrical engineering science” so that it would not contain asymmetrical Maxwellian systems nor would it contain Heaviside’s giant curled EM energy flow component.

With these changes, Morgan (using Lorentz’s services) deliberately crippled electrical engineering and electrical power systems for more than 100 years, and guaranteed that COP>1.0 and self-powering Maxwellian systems – permitted by nature and Maxwell’s original theory – would not be built by our electrical power engineers.

Tesla’s Statements Showing His Intention

To show Tesla’s intent to give the world cheap clean energy extracted freely from the active medium, here are some appropriate Tesla quotations:

“Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world’s machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas, or any other of the common fuels.” [ Nikola Tesla].

“Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point in the universe. This idea is not novel… We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus, who derives power from the earth; we find it among the subtle speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians…Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static or kinetic? If static our hopes are in vain; if kinetic – and this we know it is, for certain – then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature.” [ Nikola Tesla, in a speech in New York to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1891. Quoted from his biography, Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time].

“We have to evolve means for obtaining energy from stores which are forever inexhaustible, to perfect methods which do not imply consumption and waste of any material whatever. I now feel sure that the realization of that idea is not far off. …the possibilities of the development I refer to, namely, that of the operation of engines on any point of the earth by the energy of the medium…” [ Nikola Tesla, during an address in 1897 commemorating his installation of generators at Niagara Falls.].

“Whatever our resources of primary energy may be in the future, we must, to be rational, obtain it without consumption of any material.” [ Nikola Tesla, 1900].

Deciphering Energy Flow

“…only the entire surface integral of N [their notation for the Poynting vector] contributes to the energy balance. Paradoxical results may be obtained if one tries to identify the Poynting vector with the energy flow per unit area at any point.” [Wolfgang Panofsky and Melba Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA, 1962, third printing 1969, p.180].

“It is possible to introduce the Poynting vector S, defined by S = ExH, and regard it as the intensity of energy flow at a point. This procedure is open to criticism since we could add to S any vector whose divergence is zero without affecting [the basic integration procedure’s result].” … “…fortunately, we are rarely concerned with the energy flow at a point. In most applications we need the rate at which energy is crossing a closed surface.” [ D.S. Jones, The Theory of Electromagnetism, Pergamon Press, Oxford , 1964, p. 52, 53.].

“It is important to realize that in physics today, we have no knowledge of what energy is.” [Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, Vol. 1, 1964, p. 4-2].

In the hard physics literature, rigorous proof that eliminating the arbitrary Lorentz symmetry condition provides systems having free additional energy currents from the vacuum is given by M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., “Classical Electrodynamics without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum,” Physica Scripta, Vol. 61, 2000, p. 513-517. Quoting from p. 513:

“It is shown that if the Lorentz condition is discarded, the Maxwell-Heaviside field equations become the Lehnert equations, indicating the presence of charge density and current density in the vacuum. The Lehnert equations are a subset of the O(3) Yang-Mills field equations. Charge and current density in the vacuum are defined straightforwardly in terms of the vector potential and scalar potential, and are conceptually similar to Maxwell’s displacement current, which also occurs in the classical vacuum. A demonstration is made of the existence of a time dependent classical vacuum polarization which appears if the Lorentz condition is discarded. Vacuum charge and current appear phenomenologically in the Lehnert equations but fundamentally in the O(3) Yang-Mills theory of classical electrodynamics. The latter also allows for the possibility of the existence of vacuum topological magnetic charge density and topological magnetic current density. Both O(3) and Lehnert equations are superior to the Maxwell-Heaviside equations in being able to describe phenomena not amenable to the latter. In theory, devices can be made to extract the energy associated with vacuum charge and current.”

One of the authors has remarked:

“This has led to one of the greatest ironies in history: All the hydrocarbons ever burned, all the steam turbines that ever turned the shaft of a generator, all the rivers ever dammed, all the nuclear fuel rods ever consumed, all the windmills and waterwheels, all the solar cells, and all the chemistry in all the batteries ever produced, have not directly delivered a single watt into the external circuit’s load. All that incredible fuel consumption and energy extracted from the environment has only been used to continually restore the source dipole that our own closed current loop circuits are deliberately designed to destroy faster than the load is powered.” [ Thomas E. Bearden, “Extracting and Using Electromagnetic Energy from the Active Vacuum,” Modern Nonlinear Optics, Part 2. Second Edition, Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 119, Edited by Myron W. Evans. Series Editors I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, John Wiley and Sons, 2001, p. 691-192].

“…[There is] .. an often-overlooked feature inherent in the law that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Rigorously, work is defined as changing the form of energy. When one joule of energy performs one joule of work, one joule of energy still remains, but in an altered form. If that remaining joule of energy has its form changed yet again, another joule of work has been done. And so on.” [M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., “Classical Electrodynamics without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum,” Physica Scripta, Vol. 61, 2000, p. 515-516].

The Result Is the Horribly Crippled CEM/EE Model We Have and Use Today

As can be seen, from Morgan’s personal view that Tesla and the new Heaviside theory were unacceptable threats to his rising great financial empire, the ruthless Morgan felt fully justified in having the EE theory “fixed” and crippled, to permanently eliminate all asymmetrical Maxwellian systems from the Heaviside theory, and later also to eliminate Heaviside’s own giant curled EM energy flow component as well. In this way, Morgan directly assured the removal of self-powering and COP>1.0 asymmetrical electrical systems receiving and using excess free energy from the vacuum.

Regarding Tesla as his mortal enemy, Morgan also felt fully justified in shackling and then figuratively “imprisoning” Tesla financially for the rest of his life, totally destroying Tesla from any further open research and development that would ever again challenge Morgan’s escalating empire and huge cartels.

Interestingly, Heaviside also wound up being a near-total hermit, living in a little garret apartment.

So eerily, more than a century ago and along with its very birthing, our “modern” classical electrodynamics and electrical engineering science was deliberately mutilated and crippled, specifically so that COP>1.0 and self-powering electrical systems – asymmetrically powering loads extracted from “free EM wind energy flows” from the vacuum/space itself – would never be known or developed by our electrical engineers.

Since then, hundreds of thousands of EEs have been graduated worldwide. Electrical engineering (with its deliberately crippled CEM/EE model) has become a giant part of our science, technology, culture, and society. Everything – from our electric lights to our refrigerators and heat pumps, radios and television sets, auto ignitions, lights and power for our cities, etc. – is now using this horribly emasculated CEM/EE model. It has directly prevented struggling nations having no oil or gas resources from achieving a modern economy (which is based on cheap energy). This has left those nations impoverished, with their peoples starving and miserable and disease-wracked. Hundreds of millions of deaths from starvation and disease have resulted worldwide. It has “welded into our minds and our very brains” the mistaken notion that – other than a wee bit of wind power, water power, solar power, etc. – we can only have “energy from consumption of fuel”.

So we have Morgan’s ruthlessness, and the present totally inexcusable lack of insight by our own scientists and engineers (and particularly our scientific leadership) – to thank for the present escalating “world energy crisis” and its resulting world-wide, environmental, and epochal consequences.

What Must Be Done

The straightforward answer, of course, is that our scientists need to rapidly correct and update that horribly flawed CEM/EE model (and the entire electrical engineering technology and science being taught in all universities worldwide) that Morgan deliberately shaped us into. We must firmly remove Morgan’s dead iron boot from the back of everyone’s neck, reintroduce Maxwell’s actual higher group symmetry EM theory (updated as necessary), and restore and accomplish Tesla’s dream of providing the world cheap, clean EM energy directly from the seething vacuum/spacetime.

If “energy from fuel consumption” is the problem because fuel supply is tapering off while demand is increasing, then “energy without fuel consumption” is the solution. Windmills, solar arrays, and hydroelectric systems can give some relief, but they are only a drop in the bucket. The only complete and final solution (and one that is cheap, clean, and quick) is to shift our main interest to “energy from the vacuum”.

Quantum field theory already tells us that we simply cannot separate the charge from its ongoing fierce virtual particle interaction with the vacuum. Quoting Aitchison:

“…the concept of a ‘single particle’ actually breaks down in relativistic quantum field theory with interactions, because the interactions between ‘the particle’ and the vacuum fluctuations (or virtual quanta) cannot be ignored.” [I. J. R. Aitchison, “Nothing’s Plenty: The Vacuum in Modern Quantum Field Theory,” Contemporary Physics, 26(4), 1985, p. 357.].

Indeed, in modern physics that vacuum interaction generates all forces in nature. Again quoting Aitchison:

“Forces, in quantum field theory, are understood as being due to the exchange of virtual quanta…” [Ibid., p. 372].

Every charge in the universe already totally violates both the second law of equilibrium thermodynamics and the sad old electrical engineering model. From its very formation, the charge simply sits there and unceasingly pours out real photons – real, usable, observable EM energy – in all directions at light speed. This process forms the so-called “static” EM fields associated with that source charge; the “static” fields are not static at all, but are nonequilibrum steady state (NESS) thermodynamic systems associated with that charge.

Quoting Van Flandern on the question of a static field actually being made of finer parts in continuous motion:

“To retain causality, we must distinguish two distinct meanings of the term ‘static’. One meaning is unchanging in the sense of no moving parts. The other meaning is sameness from moment to moment by continual replacement of all moving parts. We can visualize this difference by thinking of a waterfall. A frozen waterfall is static in the first sense, and a flowing waterfall is static in the second sense. Both are essentially the same at every moment, yet the latter has moving parts capable of transferring momentum, and is made of entities that propagate. …So are … fields for a rigid, stationary source frozen, or are they continually regenerated? Causality seems to require the latter.” [ Tom Van Flandern, “The speed of gravity – What the experiments say,” Physics Letters A, Vol. 250, Dec. 21, 1998, p. 8-9].

We Must Also Recognize the Source Charge Problem and Its Solution

Every charge is continually extracting the necessary input virtual state energy to support its steady emission of observable energy, from its seething virtual particle reaction with the vacuum. This is done without any observable energy input to the charge! Quoting Sen:

“The connection between the field and its source has always been and still is the most difficult problem in classical and quantum electrodynamics.” [D. K. Sen, Fields and/or Particles, Academic Press,London and New York , 1968, p. viii].

Quoting Kosyakov:

“A generally acceptable, rigorous definition of radiation has not as yet been formulated.” …. “The recurring question has been: Why is it that an electric charge radiates but does not absorb light waves despite the fact that the Maxwell equations are invariant under time reversal?” [B. P. Kosyakov, “Radiation in electrodynamics and in Yang-Mills theory,” Soviet Phys. Usp., 35(2), Feb. 1992, p. 135, 141].

So there is no “energy” crisis at all, and there never has been! Every charge and dipole in the universe continually pours out real, usable, EM energy, and the original charges of the universe have been doing it for 15 or so billion years, since the formation of the universe. They will freely continue another 15 billion years if the universe lasts that long.

Instead of an “energy” crisis, we have an “energy from fuel” crisis because there is a finite supply of fuel and it is “topping off” and declining in availability, while the demand for energy is escalating. And since we erroneously insist that we can only have “energy from fuel” primarily, then we have an escalating “energy from fuel” crisis because we have an escalating fuel crisis.

Again, the solution obviously is “energy without fuel”. And one must use energy from a part of the external environment that is 100% dependable, never ceasing or faltering, and available at every point in the universe. Energy from the vacuum is indeed that solution.

Because of its peculiar continual interaction with the active vacuum, in modern physics one cannot regard a solitary classical charge as a “very small” thing having (access to) only a very small energy. Indeed, the charge polarizes its surrounding virtual state vacuum with charge of opposite sign. So the “charge” must be modeled as two infinite and opposite charges, each having infinite energy. Our instruments, peering through the giant external screening charge at the “bare charge” inside, sees only the finite difference of these two infinite charges. And that difference is the value of the classical charge printed in the electrical engineering textbooks. Quoting Nobelist Weinberg:

“[The total energy of the atom] depends on the bare mass and bare charge of the electron, the mass and charge that appear in the equations of the theory before we start worrying about photon emissions and reabsorptions. But free electrons as well as electrons in atoms are always emitting and reabsorbing photons that affect the electron’s mass and electric charge, and so the bare mass and charge are not the same as the measured electron mass and charge that are listed in tables of elementary particles. In fact, in order to account for the observed values (which of course are finite) of the mass and charge of the electron, the bare mass and charge must themselves be infinite. The total energy of the atom is thus the sum of two terms, both infinite: the bare energy that is infinite because it depends on the infinite bare mass and charge, and the energy shift … that is infinite because it receives contributions from virtual photons of unlimited energy.” [ Steven Weinberg, Dreams of a Final Theory, Vintage Books, Random House, 1993, p. 109-110.].

We can easily show the production of a steady and unending stream of real, usable EM energy from the vacuum, at will. Simply lay an electret or charged capacitor on a permanent magnet, so that the E-field of the electrical component and the H-field of the magnet are orthogonal. Then even according to the standard EE textbooks and their Poynting energy flow theory, that silly gadget will sit there and freely and continuously pour out a real Poynting EM energy flow S, given by the simple equation S = E X H.

So we can produce all the “free EM energy winds from the vacuum” that we wish. Easily, cheaply, and cleanly. Anywhere, anytime.

The only problem then is to learn how to build an asymmetric “EM windmill” that intercepts and collects some of that steadily flowing energy, and then dissipates it in the external loads without dissipating half of it back in the “free energy flow gadget” to destroy it.

Again, In the hard physics literature, rigorous proof that eliminating the arbitrary Lorentz condition provides systems having usable free additional energy currents from the vacuum is given by M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., “Classical Electrodynamics without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum,” Physica Scripta, Vol. 61, 2000, p. 513-517. Quoting the abstract:

“It is shown that if the Lorentz condition is discarded, the Maxwell-Heaviside field equations become the Lehnert equations, indicating the presence of charge density and current density in the vacuum. The Lehnert equations are a subset of the O(3) Yang-Mills field equations. Charge and current density in the vacuum are defined straightforwardly in terms of the vector potential and scalar potential, and are conceptually similar to Maxwell’s displacement current, which also occurs in the classical vacuum. A demonstration is made of the existence of a time dependent classical vacuum polarization which appears if the Lorentz condition is discarded. Vacuum charge and current appear phenomenologically in the Lehnert equations but fundamentally in the O(3) Yang-Mills theory of classical electrodynamics. The latter also allows for the possibility of the existence of vacuum topological magnetic charge density and topological magnetic current density. Both O(3) and Lehnert equations are superior to the Maxwell-Heaviside equations in being able to describe phenomena not amenable to the latter. In theory, devices can be made to extract the energy associated with vacuum charge and current.”

The bits and pieces of a dramatically corrected and extended electrical engineering model and electrical science are already there in the various areas of physics, just waiting to be integrated into a true and “fitted” model of “EM energy freely and copiously extracted from the vacuum”. Indeed, the higher group symmetry electrodynamics models are already generated and available in physics – such as the O(3) electrodynamics developed by Myron Evans and later extended by him into an elegant Einstein-Cartan-Evans (ECE) unified field theory. Quoting Evans from his earlier O(3) electrodynamics:

“…the acceptance of a structured vacuum described by an O(3) gauge group leads directly to the existence of novel charges and currents in the vacuum. These are conserved, or Noether, currents and charges and are clearly topological in origin. They spring from the fact that the vacuum is a topological space. Four such entities emerge: [1] A topological vacuum electric charge, also proposed empirically by Lehnert et al. [2] A topological vacuum electric current, also proposed empirically by Lehnert et al. [3] A topological vacuum magnetic charge, proposed also by Barrett and Harmuth. [4] A vacuum topological magnetic current, proposed also by Barrett and Harmuth. … Each of these four objects can provide energy, which can be loosely termed ‘vacuum energy’: energy coming from the topology of the vacuum.” [Myron W. Evans, “O(3) Electrodynamics,” in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, 3 Vols., edited by M.W. Evans, Wiley, New York, 2001, Part 1, p. 84].

To save our own nation and the Western world from a giant and impending economic collapse because of the inane “energy from fuel” crisis, we must unleash our very best scientists and researchers – particularly the young and more vigorous ones – on solving this problem. We must quickly correct and update the electrical engineering model that was so deliberately “fixed” at Morgan’s command. And we must unleash our sharp young professors, doctoral candidates, and post doctoral scientists to quickly research and develop new asymmetrical Maxwellian systems that finally – after more than a century of delay – utilize the full extent of Maxwell’s 1865 quaternion-like theory prior to the 1880s and 1890s mutilation of it after Maxwell was already dead.

Tesla Coils & The World System

Nikola Tesla’s Engineering Legacy

It was around the turn of the century, January 22, 1900, when Nikola Tesla sent his business associate George Westinghouse, Jr. some fascinating news. He wrote confidentially: “ I have just returned from Colorado, where I have been carrying on some experiments since a few months past. The success has been even greater than I anticipated, and among other things I have absolutely demonstrated the practicability of the establishment of telegraphic communication to any point on the globe by the help of the machinery I have perfected. 

The experiments Tesla referred to were preliminary steps taken toward the construction of a prototype global communications facility on eastern Long Island — a place known as Wardenclyffe. They centered around a unique form of electrical oscillator that Tesla had developed for the production of high voltage, high frequency alternating electrical currents, an invention which his contemporaries dubbed the “Tesla Coil.”

Also known as the disruptive discharge coil, these devices initially served as power supplies for various experimental high frequency electric lamps and other high frequency apparatus. The Tesla coil was subsequently adapted to the generation of radio frequency currents for Tesla’s then decade long investigation into wireless transmission, offering a superior alternative to the high frequency electrical alternators that he had also constructed for the same purpose.

Nikola Tesla’s historic laboratory and wireless communications facility (left) known as Wardenclyffe, located about 65 miles east of New York City on the North Shore of Long Island. It was here this creative genius worked out the final details related to his “World System” for ground-based global communications. The distinctive 187 foot tall tower was demolished in 1917, but the sturdy 94 foot square building still remains standing in silent testimony to Tesla’s unfulfilled dream.

The main component of the classic Tesla coil is an air core electrical step-up transformer, an assembly of two concentric wire coils positioned in fairly close proximity to each other. When an alternating current passes through the first coil or primary winding a time varying magnetic field is established which allows the transfer of energy by electromagnetic induction to the second coil or secondary winding. The transformer’s primary is excited by the rapid discharge of a high voltage capacitor through a high speed switching device known as a break or circuit controller. The potential which appears at the secondary’s high voltage terminal is developed through a process known as resonant rise. It can greatly exceed the voltage that would be expected from a conventional iron core transformer, using a simple calculation based upon the ratio of primary to secondary turns, that is to say, ratio of transformation. While in operation, the oscillator’s primary capacitor is continuously recharged by a regular high voltage transformer, allowing for an uninterrupted flow of radio frequency current in the primary and secondary circuits.

The magnifying transmitter, which was the focus of Tesla’s investigations in Colorado, is an advanced form of radio frequency oscillator specifically designed for wireless transmission. In addition to the primary and secondary inductors which made up the classic Tesla coil, Tesla added a third inductor, actually a helical resonator, known as the extra coil. Power from the grounded primary / secondary combination, now known as the master oscillator, was fed to the lower end of the extra coil helical resonator through a heavy electrical conductor.

This centrally located extra coil was separated by a wide space from the other two coils, which comprised the master oscillator section. Such spacing minimizes inductive coupling between the extra coil and the master oscillator, preventing, for the most part, a portion of the energy that is continuously flowing into the resonator from passing backward through the system and becoming lost. In addition to maximizing the efficiency of the system, allowing development of the highest possible power output for power consumed, the extra coil also served as the device’s main transmitting element. (Operational Tesla Coils – Left and right))

While Tesla’s wireless transmitter and present day radio transmitters are fundamentally the same, the method in which Tesla preferred to use his apparatus was radically different from that which is employed in present day radio systems. Conventional radio transmitters are set up so as to maximize the amount of power radiated from the antenna. When used for long range transmission, such equipment must process tremendous amounts of power in order to counteract the reduction in field strength (P = 1/R2) encountered as the signal radiates outward from its point of origin. In contrast, Tesla’s magnifying transmitter was configured so as to minimize the power which was radiated out into space. Instead of being directed into an elevated antenna, the electrical energy flowing through Tesla’s transmitter was sent instead into the extra coil.

Rather than acting as a radiator, the large metallic spheroid, now known as an isotropic capacitance, which Tesla positioned above the extra coil was intended only as a reservoir for electrical charge. Another important component of Tesla’s Long Island apparatus was an underground array of iron pipes which extended outward from the bottom of a deep shaft beneath the transmitter tower. When coupled with the transmitter these pipes provided a connection to the earth through which a powerful oscillating electrical current would flow. Unlike a conventional radio transmitter with an antenna that radiates dissipating electromagnetic waves out into space, the magnifying transmitter’s extra coil excites a low-frequency ground wave called the Zenneck surface wave. In this case the propagating energy does not radiate into space but is concentrated near the earth’s surface. Furthermore, Tesla asserted that it is possible to periodically disturb the equilibrium of the earth’s electrical charge and cause it to oscillate with his apparatus. This would be accomplished by superposing an extra low frequency baseband signal on the somewhat higher frequency signal coursing through the resonator — the low frequency current in the presence of an enveloping corona-induced plasma of free charge carriers produced by the oscillator in effect “pumping” the earth’s charge.

 (Pike’s Peak Power Station, in Colorado, above left)

It is believed the resulting ground current with the associated Zenneck surface wave complex would have propagated wireless transmissions to any distance around the earth with as little as 5% loss due to radiation . Using a global array of these magnifying transmitters, it was Tesla’s plan to establish what he called the World System, providing multichannel global broadcasting, an array of secure wireless telecommunications services, and a long range aid to navigation, including means for the precise synchronization of clocks. In a more highly developed state he envisioned the World System could expand to include the wireless transmission of electrical power.

Telsa at work, right. This photo you have seen many times. The shot was taken without Tesla actually in the room with the coil in operation, and the images were combined using a technique similar to a “time delay”, double exposure shot. No one could survive in the room with the voltage present, not even Tesla, himself. It does make for a great effect, though, which is exactly what the picture did, at the time.


Mystery of Wardenclyffe Tower

Let’s visit Tesla’s laboratory in Colorado Springs again, where Tesla made his experiments using electromagnetic fields of high frequency. He studied the operation of the human brain on himself. He wrote to his friend Johnson about some intelligent properties of electromagnetic fields. Biophysical principles of neurology were born. Just after this, in 1901, construction on Long Island began – Wardenclyffe Tower; the Magnifying Transmitter. The matter concerns a complex transmitter of electromagnetic waves. Tesla applied all his knowledge to design it: Teleautomatic Control, Hertz’s Wireless Wave Transmission, unique Ether Theory (according to which any natural element of Mendeleev’s system has its own gravitational acceleration as well as its own techniques to control the speed of time courses). A new physics was born.

What new concept could be obtained by experimenting with resonant concentrated magnetic and electromagnetic fields? Let’s return for a moment to a mystic Monard and his picture of the cosmos. Speaking about vibrations, he underlines the present; there are different nations, races and tribes on the planet, but we would never meet anyone who could live without music and dancing. 2500 years ago, Pythagoras said to his progeny that stone is frozen music. Every particle of the physical Universe has a certain property, which is pitch and overtones of its separate frequencies, i.e. its melody . (harmonic and sub-harmonic frequencies).

The natural influence of music on a man is the same as the nature of its influence on the world events, because vibration is the basis of all. The frequency of vibrations of subatomic particles is very high and waves in the center of subatomic nucleus move even quicker. Vibrations of all radiant energy (radio waves, heat, light, X-waves and so on) could be regulated. The Electromagnetic Spectrum contains more than 80 known octaves and visual light is only a part of this spectrum. Electromagnetic waves, just as acoustic waves in music, have their own harmonious high-pitched tones and there is some kind of octave principle, i.e. doubling of frequency. The common laws of music and harmony, applied to electromagnetism, give splendid results. That’s why Nikola Tesla used the works of Herman Helmholz to tune (sound in) his electrical resonators.

Johan Kepler, an astronomer, who lived in XVIIth century, believed that every planet of the Solar System is alive and there is a guardian angel on every planet, which listens to its music. Planets “play music” on their circumsolar orbits. A particular combination of sounds, which we call music, is an expression of the relation between things, in other words, their likeness and their differences. It is also a principle of appearance and disappearance of the phenomena as well, which shows how new and younger systems form from coordinated harmonious systems. The inner structure of music is the same as the structure of all the rest.

In 1665, a Dutch scientist, Christian Huyigense, noticed that the pendulums of two clocks hanging on the wall near each other start to move in rhythm. It is a universal phenomenon. When two or more oscillators begin to pulse with sufficiently small differences in time (with small shifts in phase) their oscillations come into coincidence, spontaneously. They behave according to the principle of minimum energy since every separate pendulum requires less quantity of energy with synchronous pulsation than in the case of arrhythmia. This coordination is everywhere, but we rarely notice.

We can say that all animate things are oscillators, which pulse and change their rhythms. Even the simplest unicellular organism is in complex oscillatory state. All motions on subatomic, atomic, molecular, sub-cellular and cellular levels are coordinated. In such an organism like a human being, it is very difficult and even impossible to determine corresponding parameters. Our inner rhythms are closely interconnected and they are coordinated with our external world. The physics acting on a man, on his rarified plane (astral), states that change in one rhythm, ie. the Earth’s movement around the Sun, its ebbs and flows, day and night cycles, and the many other cosmic rhythms, will effectphysical change in the man, himself. Any violation of coordination between these rhythms causes discomfort and even near illness in the organism.

Our physical body serves as exponent of our inner lead pulse, and, at the same time, it is our individuality that is our distinction in the Cosmos. The so-called “fine body” in essence has an electromagnetic material base. The Life of each of us is characterized by certain rhythmical schemes, which are subjected to physical death and retains an extracorporeal experience of the spirit, which is reincarnated. There is a supposition that the so-called “Shuman waves” takes place in the telepathic transmission of image and thought. These are waves of 7, 8 Hz frequency, which form a field of standing waves in the space between the Earth’s Ionosphere and its surface. It is our natural electromagnetic layer, which can be fully felt at the seashore or in the forest, though sea and forest absorb other harmful frequencies. It may occur that the brain enters a state of resonance with some external structure; a result will be the appearance of its image at a distance, i.e. there is a contact made by means of resonance but not by means of radiation. Since these waves have a large length (38 000 km), then transmission takes place immediately. Waves with such an extreme low frequency cannot be screened by the usual means. In essence, waves of an organism often coincide with these waves by phase. However, the problem is that waves with such low frequencies can transmit little information and therefore it is often impossible to receive a clear picture and give a full description of images of things.

Modern holistic (integral) approaches to understanding the Universe have sacral traditions, per se. These foundations were laid as traditions in religion, such as Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Christianity, where we can find a clear statement that every part of Cosmos includes the Whole. It is analogous to the principle of holography. It is considered that we can make a full hologram of the Universe based on any of its small parts. Formation of this hologram can take an arbitrarily long time. The Hologram of a real man is something different from the physical basis of an ideal cosmic rhythm.

Consciousness, which is a continual manifestation of the rarified substances (astral) of a man, is shifted by its phase in comparison with genetic material, and conscious will is only one of the universal instruments of cosmic purposefulness. A “right” man acting in a “right place is a man whose intentions are coordinated with cosmic rhythm. Conscious intention has power, and our main choice is to take responsibility for its results. So, actually we are made of waves, but not of matter, which would be called “solid.” All that we call  -things- and -events- are manifestations of acting on these waves. Every man has his unique cosmic identifier assigned by a certain function of waves, which represent us. Every man has his own hologram, which contains a universal information about time. The Identifier is a main element of Cosmos; it characterizes an individual specificity of a subject, who using this identifier, can influence everything by methods, which seem to be unusual. We are a peculiar hologram, so potentially we know all about all.

The secret of Wardenclyffe is hidden. Nevertheless, many things show that the object built by Tesla in Long Island (at that time it was a New York suburb) went ahead of all the dreams of modern scientists. It was a translator of electromagnetic wave systems. By means of these waves (that scientist called earthquakes), Tesla could attain “mental” shifts in people and animals, fires in the atmosphere, creation of an impenetrable energy barrier in the ionosphere, controlling time, splitting and condensing  of the clouds by means of corresponding wave frequency, and, finally, an inexhaustible energy from the Ether using the principle of “Ether Technology,” which is still unknown to us. Tesla demonstrated his experiments to numerous witnesses, but he never announced all of the results nor divulged to anyone his scientific principles. The real reason for building this giant electromagnetic and mechanical oscillator and his motives, could be much more serious than we could yet imagine.

A report by W. Pickering, professor of the Harvard Observatory, named “Alternating light from Mars”, was published in “New York Times” on January 16, 1901. It may be shortened:

Last year in the beginning of December we got a telegram from Lowell observatory at Arizona. This telegram informed that a strong light flux was noticed coming from Mars and lasted for 70 minutes. Lowell observatory specializes on observations of Mars, and observer was an attentive, approved and experienced man, so we have no doubt in his statements. We will consider these facts immediately and will notify Europe and America via telegraph. The light came from the known point on Mars and there is no unusual in this point according to scientific data. Whatever there was, now we have no means to research anything. We cannot say with certainty if it is a sign that there is an intellect. For the time present this phenomenon is inexplicable.”

When this information appeared, Tesla was in New York. He just returned from Colorado Springs, where he, through the course of year, made epochal and inexplicable experiments with electromagnetic fields of resonant properties. (Tesla’s laboratory in Colorado was situated precisely on the summit of Pike’s Peak. It is interesting that this peak was deified by the Hopi Indians- they consider it the Spiritual Pole of the World).

Encouraged by the information from Lowell observatory, Tesla stated in the  New York Gazette that during his research in Colorado Springs, he communicated with Mars himself. At that time, he made hints about having already designed a device for interplanetary communication, which would be improved in the near future. He wrote: “I’ll never forget the first feeling that I felt when I understood that I have a contact with something, which will have priceless and immense results for all humankind. Things that I noticed, frightened me as if I saw something mysterious and almost preternatural. Little by little I understood that I am the first who hear messages sending from one planet to another…

Respected Professor Holden didn’t consider Tesla’s contacts with extraterrestrial beings by means of electromagnetism, because he thought it was not a serious case. Tesla worked with some extremely long electromagnetic waves of very high frequency that do not correspond to accepted theory, because increasing of a wave’s frequency is always related with short-wave transmission. However, Tesla’s waves were different from those discovered by Hertz. They propagated with a speed, which far exceeded the speed of light, better to say that their propagation was instantaneous. Tesla had his own theory of electromagnetism, which is still not properly interpreted. He discovered not only the possibility of wireless transmission of energy through the Earth and atmosphere without any losses, but also proved an unprecedented “breakdown power” of these waves during their negotiation of space. There is an unconfirmed legend that Tesla was the first to send periodical signals to the stars.

Supposedly, Tesla sent coded geometrical theorems like those of Tales, Pythagoras, and an Archimedean formula of the harmonic series (we speak about addition of the series 1+1/2+1/4+1/8+…. the Sum of this series is equal to two but, the number of terms can be infinite). Three days later, Tesla was surprised – he got a response. He guessed the principle, which lie in the basis of the response code, and got a human face with regular features. At first he couldn’t understand if this picture was made by those who sent this signal and wanted to show that they know of our civilization, or they drew their own image to demonstrate that there are similar beings in Cosmos. If it is true, then it should be clear that Tesla refused any open discussion of this discovery because he couldn’t get a response. But soon, something occurred that returned discussion of this happening in the American press.

In 1902, Lord Kelvin, a famous English physicist, visited America. When he spoke to Tesla, he expressed a full consent and understanding of the fact that details of Tesla’s “extraterrestrial communication” were not for public discussion. After a banquet (organized in his honor), Lord Kelvin said some good words about New York: “It is the city with the best illumination in the world and it is the only place on the Earth, which can be seen from Mars”. In addition, as if in some kind of inspiration he finally exclaimed “Mars is signaling New York”. This time, nobody had objections. Even persistent Professor Holden kept silent. It was not polite to contradict such an old and respected man as Lord Kelvin. Instead of objections, an article written by the writer and publicist Julian Hotorn, Tesla’s associate, appeared as a direct conclusion from this discussion. He described Tesla’s sensational methods as a fantasy. Hotorn wrote:

It is evident that people from Mars and other old planets had been visiting Earth for years and attentively observe the development of our civilization. Besides, Tesla’s birth changed all. Maybe, it is possible that people from the stars control his spiritual and scientific development, isn’t it? Is there anybody who can know something concrete?” In the heat of the disputes concerning Martians, Tesla was alone in his Wardenclyffe Tower and continued to work hard and insensibly on the biggest project of his life; Wardenclyffe Tower was to make radical changes in the development of our civilization. These changes cannot easily be considered true.

Earth – the planet as a resonant system 

When making a decision to build a relaying station, Tesla at first bought a plot at Long Island and then asked the famous J.P. Morgan for help. Morgan was a member of numerous secret organizations; also, he was a genius of business organization. He already had cancer and had a hope that Tesla‘s science would help him recover. He expected that Tesla somehow would connect him to some energy source and make him young and healthy forever. Tesla thought that Morgan would be a man who would understand his plan. He considered that a man has predestination and every man is predisposed to its own activity. Negotiations between the two friends were private. There is no clear information about the time when Tesla decided to begin the construction of Tower and about expectations of Morgan as businessman and financier.

During his public appearances, Tesla changed his statements of Wardenclyffe Tower at Long Island, twice. At first, he stated it was for a universal telegraph and telephone system, and secondly, for wireless energy transmission through the Earth. The truth might be found in his letter to Morgan:  “What I contemplate and what I can certainly accomplish, Mr. Morgan, is not a simple transmission of messages without wires to great distances but it is the transformation of the entire Globe into a sentient being, as it were, which can feel in all its parts and through which thought may be flashed as through the brain…” Many authors, especially Tesla‘s biographers, blamed Morgan for cutting off financial assistance at the moment when Tesla was on the threshold of important discoveries. Tesla, in his autobiography “My Inventions” clearly tells us about it. In spite of all that was said, Morgan fulfilled all his obligations regarding him.

My project was retarded by laws of nature. The world was not prepared for it. It was too far ahead of time. But the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success.

Tesla tested his transmitter at its full capacity on June 15, 1903. He began his experiment sharp at midnight. This night New York citizens witnessed the event which would astound future science. Glaringly bright strands of electrical plasma, the length of more than a hundred miles connected the spherical cupola of Wardenclyffe with the sky. The next day the “New York Sun” wrote:

people living near Tesla’s laboratory at Long Island were intrigued very much in his experiments with wireless energy transmission. Last night they were the witnesses of a very strange phenomena – multicolored lightning made by Tesla himself, the inflammation of the atmospheric layers at different altitudes and along the New York territory, Night suddenly turned to day. At times, the air was full of luminescence, concentrated along the edges of human body, and people radiated a mysterious shine or glow. They seemed to be (as) ghosts.”

According to Tesla’s initial plan, five towers, the same as Wardenclyffe, would be built. The second tower would be constructed in Amsterdam, the third in China and the fourth and fifth built at the North and South Poles. However, this plan was postponed due to reasons that should (now) be investigated. Finally, if all this could have been realized, what would be achieved? The Earth would become a uniform homogeneous system, which could be controlled by (wireless) telephone commands, which would start certain oscillators, producing and transmitting electromagnetic waves of various frequencies. The same electromagnetic system would be completed with a system for mechanical resonance with the Earth. These systems consisted of a tunnel passed under the laboratory and filled with water and oil, and hydraulic pumps serving as oscillators. By synchronized actions, based on exact mathematical calculations, both systems would start vibration simultaneously together with the rarified stratosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere, as with all liquid and solid structures of the planet. The entire planet would vibrate and resonate in unison!

Before conjecture relating to all the possible consequences of such an event, we should give two more examples that are unusual. In his interview of July 17, 1930 given to the “New York Sun” Tesla redoubled his enigma, stating that people who live near Wardenclyffe and were frightened with his experiments could see much more…


Tesla said
, ” if during last two years they were more awake than asleep, they could get acquainted with really incredible things. Sometime, but not now; I’ll announce something, which you cannot find even in fairytales.”

After one unusual night, with Wardenclyffe Tower (the Magnifying Transmitter) fully operational, he fired (illuminated) the sky above not only New York, but also above all the vast area of the eastern Atlantic Ocean – Tesla suddenly left his laboratory without a clear reason and left everything untouched. As we know, he never crossed the threshold of Wardenclyffe, never visited it, and never appeared on its property again. It was very strange as, he didn’t take any calculations, drawing or document, not one paper. It was a turning point in his public scientific work. Personally, I feel that Tesla’s discovered something awe inspiring – something so fantastic that even Tesla himself could not believe it. I think that Wardenclyffe tower, fully functional, tapped the very fabric of nature – universal and unlimited power, freely available to anyone, anytime. I also think that in that moment in time when Tesla realized this fact – he deliberately stopped all work on Wardenclyffe. I think he realized his work could be weaponized!

Tesla’s ether technology

Tesla discovered and used the law, concerning the fundamental properties of Ether. Supposition made about Ether’s continuity as one of the main cosmic mediums means that the imaginary center of the Cosmos is everywhere, that law of structuring of such medium should have analogues with the law of location of points in geometric spheres. There is no information that Tesla formed nor told his theory in such a way, but he left some principles of systems working, which are unknown to modern physics. The question is about an Ether Generator, i.e. electromagnetic ball, which has constant electrical potential in spite of any energy leakage, than about a synchronous motor working on the gravitational waves of the planets of the Solar System (this motor turns on independently at certain seasons and reacts on the corresponding arrangement of planets. It also independently turns off, when the resonant interval of time ends). Besides, Tesla designed a metal disk, which could be hung at some height and has anti-gravitational properties, which do not depend on attractive force of any given place. Parts of this structured Ether can be resonant or not. In the first case, a condensation of subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons, or neutrons, takes place. These particles appear by means of resonant synthesis of photons, according to the same principles as during formation of photons as specific particles of Ether – Asynchronous, non-resonant parts of Ether form a space, in which resonating photons form matter.

Tesla’s Wardenclyffe Tower was a “ Pythagorean” oscillator. A Mathematical description of transmission of particular electromagnetic waves was identical with Pythagorean creative method. Signs used by Tesla in his equations have a single-meaning physical interpretation. Principles of Tesla’s ether technologies belong to the level of cosmic existence, on which it is possible to control space and time. The principle of resonance and harmonic oscillation of ether seems to be so clear that all problems of modern physics, especially problems of energy conversion, will be solved with its development.

By means of his vacuum tube, Tesla got protons, electrons and neutrons directly from the physical continuum (ether) and reproduced them at any distance. Instead of giving ability to the bundle of protons to move free through space to some place, he created conditions for momentary appearances of arbitrary quantity of particles in the given place. Quantity of protons, neutrons and electrons was not limited by anything, the difference in their quantity was stipulated by the created shift in time. Starting from the supposition that Tesla knew something (unusual for science) and still inconceivable to all the laws of nature, we should think about what technical goals he followed using Wardenclyffe Tower and what he expected.

  1. To cause oscillations of the ionosphere. Since the difference of voltage between surface of the Earth and ionosphere constitutes about two billion volts, then the Tower is continually oscillating on upper and lower harmonics of oscillations of the ionosphere up to full coincidence with it by phase (up to resonance) and can discharge it in the same way as usual electrical condensers are discharged. Due to the reason that such a charge could pass immediately, there would be a real threat to New York. A high-energy plasma column of a very large diameter (possibly of several hundred kilometers) would appear from the  ionosphere, and everything situated in this space would be disintegrated. Of course, Tesla had no intention to destroy New York. He only wanted to take energy from the ionosphere by means of short oscillatory intervals to recharge his huge oscillator, which required maximum voltage of one hundred million volts. As a system for hyperfine oscillating, Tesla used a huge quantity of ultraviolet lamps, placed at the top of his Tower.
  2. To take energy from Ether. It is possible to shift time coordinates and produce an energy transmission by time cycles from the past to the future without any violent release of electromagnetic equilibrium of environment by means of oscillation of non-resonance electromagnetic fields. Of course, it should be done strictly following mathematical law, which determines the interrelations of frequencies with a great accuracy. In an opposite case, the results can get out of control and an unexpected destruction of material and biological objects or their momentary dropout form segments of our reality can take place like in the Philadelphia experiment.
  3. To open temporary windows in “parallel worlds”. Since parallel worlds have an electromagnetic structure with the wavelength and frequency of oscillations different from those of the Earth, then is could be possible to make some connection between frequencies of oscillations of our world and other worlds by means of complex harmonic oscillating. Due to this, some pictures of these worlds could become apparent in our earth conditions (and vice versa).
  4. To accelerate human evolution. If we make a permanent high-frequency field harmonizing with collective electromagnetic field of people, then little by little it will be possible to achieve an increase in sensibility of perception and increase in ability to receive ideas. Radiation of these frequencies could be harmful: any disharmony of field (non-resonance) calls a partial separation of astral and physical substance of a man, it can lead to sickness (for example, cancer) or mental disorders. Full separation of one substance from another, of course, leads to death. In addition, all these processes act slowly. Due to their lack of knowledge, people pollute their electromagnetic environment more and more by radio waves, microwave radiation form locators (which call cancer, it was proved experimentally). Other electromagnetic radiation also has negative impact. These electromagnetic waves are in disharmony with frequencies of oscillations, which are natural for vital functions and for informational field of Solar system.
  5. To be able to transfer the Earth into “parallel realities”. If Tesla had finished the construction of the system made of five transmitters and started it, the whole Earth would be in a state of oscillation as a uniform, resonant structure, and in such oscillation, peculiar to some other reality, and thus physically move us to the “parallel world”. Thus possibly, he wanted to accelerate the evolution of civilization. However, it could be very dangerous, because if the Earth enters the state of resonance and is oscillating with “parallel worlds,” then catastrophes could occur like that was described in the myth about Atlantis. Modern experimenters should keep in mind that the secret of this physical world lies in metaphysics and as long as our science is blinded with research of “ crude” matter, we will be in the state of an illusionary split consciousness. It is necessary to provide a breakdown of human consciousness, and it will happen in physics. We should free the human mind and adjust it to deep cosmological research. “Imagine you have on a table before you an immense rubber bag snugly filled with water. I take a rubber tube with a piston-rod in it and insert the tube into the rubber bag. When I press on the piston-rod I compress the water in the bag so that it expands the bag.” “When I withdraw the piston,” continued Tesla, ” the bag will shrink just so much as there is water drawn up into my tube; and now if I put a second tube with a piston-rod into the bag at the other end, at every pressure of the first piston-rod the effect will be felt and measured in the second tube. Now if a certain action of one piston-rod indicates a certain word or a certain sentence, if you watch the other piston-rod carefully you may easily read it. This is exactly what takes place in wireless telegraphy,” concluded Tesla; ” let the rubber bag stand for the earth, the water for the electric currents in the earth, and the two tubes and piston-rods for a sending oscillator and receiving oscillator. One sort of disturbance by one oscillator means a certain sentence, and when this particular disturbance is recorded on the second oscillator the operator there knows exactly how to interpret it.”

The “oscillators ” to which the inventor refers are huge discs on which are insulated hundreds of coils of copper wire whose ends connect with the centre of the disc, where there is a huge round copper ball. They are really the only apparatus required for wireless telegraphy. To operate them Tesla simply turns the transmitting oscillator face downwards, and turns on a current which causes immense tongues of visible electric flashes to leap from the ball into the ground. The receiving oscillator has a delicate contrivance which throbs with each disturbance of the earth’s electric currents and records them on a specially contrived apparatus.

Not the least fascinating of Tesla’s numerous inventions is one to which he has given the name of “visual telegraphy.” With this apparatus one person has only to look into the receiver of an ordinary telephone in one city, and, while talking to a friend a thousand miles away, he can watch the expression on the other’s face, criticise the cut of his new suit of clothing, or advise him what to do for that tired look about the eyes. In this invention the experimental apparatus has proved thoroughly successful. The principle of this invention is that just as much as sound-waves make an impression on the immediate atmosphere, so do light waves make their impression. [Nikola Tesla’s wireless telegraphy apparatus.]

“Now, as sound waves of the human voice are transmitted miles and miles by the present telephone after their impression is made on the telephone transmitter,” says Mr. Tesla, ” just so my experiments have demonstrated that the light waves of the human body can be transmitted by a different sort of telephone miles and miles away. All we need is the invention of a new transmitter. As the impressions of light waves are so many times more delicate than the impressions of sound waves, it follows that to transmit the impression of the human face, for instance, we require a transmitter many times more delicate. Now, selenium being an extremely sensitive substance, I have utilised this material in the construction of the transmitter which I have just described, and I have found it to be perfectly satisfactory.”

To make our homes, our offices, and the streets at midnight as light as day, is another of the great tasks which Mr. Tesla set out for himself many years ago. His hope was to invent a new kind of electric light which would have the strong, steady glow of sunlight. That Tesla has succeeded in his dream to make artificial daylight there can be no doubt. To every visitor of his laboratory he shows numerous balls of glass of different sizes which look like miniature suns. The glass balls are perfectly empty, there are no wires in them, nor are there any wires on the outside of them. They do not burn the fingers when they are touched. The light does not hurt the eyes as sunlight and ordinary electric light do. By the time this article is published, a number of the leading New York and Chicago photographers will have their studios supplied with the new artificial daylight. [The hand of Nikola Tesla, taken by his wonderful artificial daylight, just perfected. This is the first photograph made by the light of the future]

“The reason I have chosen to introduce the new daylight to the photographers first,” says the inventor, ” is that I believe them to be the severest critics, and most hard to please in the matter of light. If it succeeds with them, a new light will succeed everywhere.” Not the least ingenious of Tesla’s great schemes is his invention to fertilise impoverished land by electricity. When Tesla has a company formed to put this invention on the market it will no longer be necessary for the farmer to spend half his year’s receipts in purchasing fertilisers. He has only to buy an electric fertiliscr of his own, which he can secure for a trifle at the nearest town. Dumping a few loads of loose earth into the fertiliser, it comes out at the other end, ready to be spread over the surface of the impoverished ground, where it will insure for the Eollowing season the luxurious crop of the virgin soil.

The explanation which Mr. Tesla gives of just why so simple a piece of work should be productive of such wonderful results is not difficult to comprehend. ” Everyone knows,” says he, ” that the constituent of a fertiliser which makes the ground productive is its nitrogen. Everybody knows also that nitrogen forms four-fifths of the volume of the atmosphere above that piece of unfertile land. This being the case it occurred to me: ‘Where is the sense in the farmer buying expensive nitrogen when he has it free of cost at his own door? All the agriculturist needs is some method by which he can separate some of this nitrogen from the atmosphere above the ground and place it on the surface.’ And it was to discover this means that I set to work.”

As far as the non-technical eye can perceive, the working model of the electric fertiliser consists of nothing but an upright copper cylinder with a removable top, with a spiral coil of wire running throughout the length of the cylinder. Through the bottom of the cylinder are two wires, which connect with a specially constructed dynamo. A quantity of loose earth, treated by a secret chemical preparation in liquid form, is shovelled into the cylinder, an electric current is passed through the confined atmosphere; the oxygen and hydrogen are thus expelled, and the nitrogen which remains is absorbed into the loose earth. There is thus produced as strong a fertiliser for a nominal price at home as it is possible to purchase at a large cost miles and miles away. Mention is made in this paper of only those inventions of Mr. Tesla which have passed beyond the experimental stage. But there are hundreds of other promised wonders in the yet incipient stage of development in the great inventor’s miracle-factory. As I have heard one of his admirers express it, an enumeration of these ” sounds like the dream of a half-intoxicated god.” Signalling to other planets, raising of certain of the dead by electricity, ending all wars by a terrible machine — these are a few suggestions selected at random.

Nikola Tesla is a young man yet, and on this account many of his promises have been looked upon by older scientists as but fanciful dreams of a youthful mind. He has scarcely ever made any invention whichthe scientific world has accepted as possible on the first public announcement. But sooner or later the scientific wiseacres have been compelled to admit that Tesla has proven their theories to be wrong. How these conservative scientists sneered at Tesla’s “Utopian audacity” when he first suggested that man should harness the great Niagara Falls! But they humbled their pride sufficiently to be present when the enterprise was formally completed. Again, when he announced the invention of the “Tesla coil” they set him down as “pipe-dreamer.” But a few of the brightest of them set to work seriously on the “coil” with the result that one of them — Rontgen — discovered his famous X-Rays. No one who is privileged to know Tesla personally, to have heard him explain his plans, and to have been shown through his unique workshop, has the slightest doubt that every one of his promises will be fulfilled in an equally successful way.

Transmission Of Electrical Energy Without Wires

by Nikola Tesla
as communicated to the Thirtieth Anniversary of
the Electrical World and Engineer,
March 5, 1904

It is impossible to resist your courteous request extended on an occasion of such moment in the life of your journal. Your letter has vivified the memory of our beginning friendship, of the first imperfect attempts and undeserved successes, of kindness and misunderstandings. It has brought painfully to my mind the greatness of early expectations, the quick flight of time, and alas! the smallness of realizations. The following lines which, but for your initiative, might not have been given to the world for a long time yet, are an offering in the friendly spirit of old, and my best wishes for your future success accompany them.

Towards the close of 1898 a systematic research, carried on for a number of years with the object of perfecting a method of transmission of electrical energy through the natural medium, led me to recognize three important necessities: First, to develop a transmitter of great power; second, to perfect means for individualizing and isolating the energy transmitted; and, third, to ascertain the laws of propagation of currents through the earth and the atmosphere. Various reasons, not the least of which was the help proffered by my friend Leonard E. Curtis and the Colorado Springs Electric Company, determined me to select for my experimental investigations the large plateau, two thousand meters above sea-level, in the vicinity of that delightful resort, which I reached late in May, 1899. I had not been there but a few days when I congratulated myself on the happy choice and I began the task, for which I had long trained myself, with a grateful sense and full of inspiring hope. The perfect purity of the air, the unequaled beauty of the sky, the imposing sight of a high mountain range, the quiet and restfulness of the place–all around contributed to make the conditions for scientific observations ideal.

To this was added the exhilarating influence of a glorious climate and a singular sharpening of the senses. In those regions the organs undergo perceptible physical changes. The eyes assume an extraordinary limpidity, improving vision; the ears dry out and become more susceptible to sound. Objects can be clearly distinguished there at distances such that I prefer to have them told by someone else, and I have heard, this I can venture to vouch for, the claps of thunder seven and eight hundred kilometers away. I might have done better still, had it not been tedious to wait for the sounds to arrive, in definite intervals, as heralded precisely by an electrical indicating apparatus, nearly an hour before.

In the middle of June, while preparations for other work were going on, I arranged one of my receiving transformers with the view of determining in a novel manner, experimentally, the electric potential of the globe and studying its periodic and casual fluctuations. This formed part of a plan carefully mapped out in advance. A highly sensitive, self-restorative device, controlling a recording instrument, was included in the secondary circuit, while the primary was connected to the ground and an elevated terminal of adjustable capacity. The variations of potential gave rise to electric surging in the primary; these generated secondary currents, which in turn affected the sensitive device and recorder in proportion to their intensity. The earth was found to be, literally, alive with electrical vibrations, and soon I was deeply absorbed in the interesting investigation. No better opportunities for such observations as I intended to make could be found anywhere.

Colorado is a country famous for the natural displays of electric force. In that dry and rarefied atmosphere the sun’s rays beat the objects with fierce intensity. I raised steam, to a dangerous pressure, in barrels filled with concentrated salt solution, and the tinfoil coatings of some of my elevated terminals shriveled up in the fiery blaze. An experimental high-tension transformer, carelessly exposed to the rays of the setting sun, had most of its insulating compound melted out and was rendered useless. Aided by the dryness and rarefaction of the air, the water evaporates as in a boiler, and static electricity is developed in abundance. Lightning discharges are, accordingly, very frequent and sometimes of inconceivable violence. On one occasion approximately twelve thousand discharges occurred in two hours, and all in a radius of certainly less than fifty kilometers from the laboratory. Many of them resembled gigantic trees of fire with the trunks up or down. I never saw fire balls, but as compensation for my disappointment I succeeded later in determining the mode of their formation and producing them artificially.

In the latter part of the same month I noticed several times that my instruments were affected stronger by discharges taking place at great distances than by those near by. This puzzled me very much. What was the cause? A number of observations proved that it could not be due to the differences in the intensity of the individual discharges, and I readily ascertained that the phenomenon was not the result of a varying relation between the periods of my receiving circuits and those of the terrestrial disturbances. One night, as I was walking home with an assistant, meditating over these experiences, I was suddenly staggered by a thought. Years ago, when I wrote a chapter of my lecture before the Franklin Institute and the National Electric Light Association, it had presented itself to me, but I dismissed it as absurd and impossible. I banished it again. Nevertheless, my instinct was aroused and somehow I felt that I was nearing a great revelation.

It was on the third of July–the date I shall never forget–when I obtained the first decisive experimental evidence of a truth of overwhelming importance for the advancement of humanity. A dense mass of strongly charged clouds gathered in the west and towards the evening a violent storm broke loose which, after spending much of its fury in the mountains, was driven away with great velocity over the plains. Heavy and long persisting arcs formed almost in regular time intervals. My observations were now greatly facilitated and rendered more accurate by the experiences already gained. I was able to handle my instruments quickly and I was prepared. The recording apparatus being properly adjusted, its indications became fainter and fainter with the increasing distance of the storm, until they ceased altogether. I was watching in eager expectation. Surely enough, in a little while the indications again began, grew stronger and stronger and, after passing through a maximum, gradually decreased and ceased once more.

Many times, in regularly recurring intervals, the same actions were repeated until the storm which, as evident from simple computations, was moving with nearly constant speed, had retreated to a distance of about three hundred kilometers. Nor did these strange actions stop then, but continued to manifest themselves with undiminished force. Subsequently, similar observations were also made by my assistant, Mr. Fritz Lowenstein, and shortly afterward several admirable opportunities presented themselves which brought out, still more forcibly, and unmistakably, the true nature of the wonderful phenomenon. No doubt, whatever remained: I was observing stationary waves.

As the source of disturbances moved away the receiving circuit came successively upon their nodes and loops. Impossible as it seemed, this planet, despite its vast extent, behaved like a conductor of limited dimensions. The tremendous significance of this fact in the transmission of energy by my system had already become quite clear to me. Not only was it practicable to send telegraphic messages to any distance without wires, as I recognized long ago, but also to impress upon the entire globe the faint modulations of the human voice, far more still, to transmit power, in unlimited amounts, to any terrestrial distance and almost without loss.

With these stupendous possibilities in sight, and the experimental evidence before me that their realization was henceforth merely a question of expert knowledge, patience and skill, I attacked vigorously the development of my magnifying transmitter, now, however, not so much with the original intention of producing one of great power, as with the object of learning how to construct the best one. This is, essentially, a circuit of very high self-induction and small resistance which in its arrangement, mode of excitation and action, may be said to be the diametrical opposite of a transmitting circuit typical of telegraphy by Hertzian or electromagnetic radiation.

It is difficult to form an adequate idea of the marvelous power of this unique appliance, by the aid of which the globe will be transformed. The electromagnetic radiation being reduced to an insignificant quantity, and proper conditions of resonance maintained, the circuit acts like an immense pendulum, storing indefinitely the energy of the primary exciting impulses and impressions upon the earth of the primary exciting impulses and impressions upon the earth and its conducting atmosphere uniform harmonic oscillations of intensities which, as actual tests have shown, may be pushed so far as to surpass those attained in the natural displays of static electricity.

Simultaneously with these endeavors, the means of individualization and isolation were gradually improved. Great importance was attached to this, for it was found that simple tuning was not sufficient to meet the vigorous practical requirements. The fundamental idea of employing a number of distinctive elements, cooperatively associated, for the purpose of isolating energy transmitted, I trace directly to my perusal of Spencer’s clear and suggestive exposition of the human nerve mechanism. The influence of this principle on the transmission of intelligence, and electrical energy in general, cannot as yet be estimated, for the art is still in the embryonic stage; but many thousands of simultaneous telegraphic and telephonic messages, through one single conducting channel, natural or artificial, and without serious mutual interference, are certainly practicable, while millions are possible. On the other hand, any desired degree of individualization may be secured by the use of a great number of cooperative elements and arbitrary variation of their distinctive features and order of succession. For obvious reasons, the principle will also be valuable in the extension of the distance of transmission.

Progress though of necessity slow was steady and sure, for the objects aimed at were in a direction of my constant study and exercise. It is, therefore, not astonishing that before the end of 1899 I completed the task undertaken and reached the results which I have announced in my article in the Century Magazine of June, 1900, every word of which was carefully weighed. (one of Tesla’s most often quoted statements)

Much has already been done towards making my system commercially available, in the transmission of energy in small amounts for specific purposes, as well as on an industrial scale. The results attained by me have made my scheme of intelligence transmission, for which the name of “World Telegraphy” has been suggested, easily realizable. It constitutes, I believe, in its principle of operation, means employed and capacities of application, a radical and fruitful departure from what has been done heretofore. I have no doubt that it will prove very efficient in enlightening the masses, particularly in still uncivilized countries and less accessible regions, and that it will add materially to general safety, comfort and convenience, and maintenance of peaceful relations.

It involves the employment of a number of plants, all of which are capable of transmitting individualized signals to the uttermost confines of the earth. Each of them will be preferably located near some important center of civilization and the news it receives through any channel will be flashed to all points of the globe. A cheap and simple device, which might be carried in one’s pocket, may then be set up somewhere on sea or land, and it will record the world’s news or such special messages as may be intended for it. Thus the entire earth will be converted into a huge brain, as it were, capable of response in every one of its parts. Since a single plant of but one hundred horsepower can operate hundreds of millions of instruments, the system will have a virtually infinite working capacity, and it must needs immensely facilitate and cheapen the transmission of intelligence.

The first of these central plants would have been already completed had it not been for unforeseen delays which, fortunately, have nothing to do with its purely technical features. But this loss of time, while vexatious, may, after all, prove to be a blessing in disguise. The best design of which I know has been adopted, and the transmitter will emit a wave complex of a total maximum activity of 10,000,000 horsepower, one percent of which is amply sufficient to “girdle the globe.” This enormous rate of energy delivery, approximately twice that of the combined falls of Niagara, is obtainable only by the use of certain artifices, which I shall make known in due course.

For a large part of the work which I have done so far I am indebted to the noble generosity of Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, which was all the more welcome and stimulating, as it was extended at a time when those, who have since promised most, were the greatest of doubters. I have also to thank my friend Stanford White, for much unselfish and valuable assistance. This work is now far advanced, and though the results may be tardy, they are sure to come. Meanwhile, the transmission of energy on an industrial scale is not being neglected. The Canadian Niagara Power Company have offered me a splendid inducement, and next to achieving success for the sake of the art, it will give me the greatest satisfaction to make their concession financially profitable to them. In this first power plant, which I have been designing for a long time, I propose to distribute 10,000 horsepower under a tension of 10,000,000 volts, which I am now able to produce and handle with safety.

This energy will be collected all over the globe preferably in small amounts, ranging from a fraction of one to a few horsepower. One of the chief uses will be the illumination of isolated homes. It takes very little power to light a dwelling with vacuum tubes operated by high frequency currents and in each instance a terminal a little above the roof will be sufficient. Another valuable application will be the driving of clocks and other such apparatus. These clocks will be exceedingly simple, will require absolutely no attention and will indicate rigorously correct time. The idea of impressing upon the earth American time is fascinating and very likely to become popular.

There are innumerable devices of all kinds which are either now employed or can be supplied and by operating them in this manner I may be able to offer a great convenience to the whole world with a plant of no more than 10,000 horsepower. The introduction of this system will give opportunities for invention and manufacture such as have never presented themselves before. Knowing the far reaching importance of this first attempt and its effect upon future development, I shall proceed slowly and carefully. Experience has taught me not to assign a term to enterprises the consummation of which is not wholly dependent on my own abilities and exertions. But I am hopeful that these great realizations are not far off and I know that when this first work is completed they will follow with mathematical certitude.

When the great truth accidentally revealed and experimentally confirmed is fully recognized, that this planet, with all its appalling immensity, is to electric current virtually no more than a small metal ball and that by this fact many possibilities, each baffling the imagination and of incalculable consequence, are rendered absolutely sure of accomplishment; when the first plant is inaugurated, and it is shown that a telegraphic message, almost as secret and non-interferable as a thought, can be transmitted to any terrestrial distance, the sound of the human voice, with all its intonations and injections, faithfully and instantly reproduced at any point of the globe, the energy of a waterfall made available for supplying light, heat or motive power, anywhere on sea, or land, or high in the air…humanity will be like an ant heap stirred up with a stick: See the excitement coming.

 

 

Summation:

The Niagara Falls plant was never built; and difficulties, soon enough, were encountered at the Wardenclyffe plant not only in securing desired equipment but also financesTesla’s greatest oversight was that he neglected to invent, so to speak, a device for making the unlimited quantities of money that were necessary to develop his other inventions . As we have seen, he was utterly lacking in the phase of personality that made possible the securing of financial returns directly from his inventions. An individual with his ability could have made millions out of each of a number of Tesla’s minor inventions.

If he had taken the trouble, for example, to collect annual royalties on twenty or more different kinds of devices put out by as many manufacturers employing his Tesla coil for medical treatments, he would have had ample income to finance his World Wireless System.

His mind, however, was too fully occupied with fascinating scientific problems. He had, at times, nearly a score of highly skilled workmen constantly employed in his laboratory developing the electrical inventions he was continuing to make at a rapid rate. Armed guards were always stationed around the laboratory to prevent spying on his inventions. His payroll was heavy, his bank balance became dangerously low, but he was so immersed in his experimental work that he continuously put off the task of making an effort to repair his finances.

He soon found himself facing judgments obtained by creditors on accounts upon which he could not make payments. He was forced, in 1905, to close the Wardenclyffe laboratory… The fantastic tower in front of the laboratory was never completed. The doughnut-shaped copper electrode was never built because Tesla changed his mind and decided to have a copper hemisphere 100 feet in diameter and 50 feet high built on top of the 154-foot cone-shaped tower.

A skeleton framework for holding the hemispherical plates was built, but the copper sheeting was never applied to it. The 300-horsepower dynamos and the apparatus for operating the broadcasting station were left intact, but they were eventually removed by the engineering firm that installed them and had not been paid. “Prodigal Genius. by, John O’Neil” excerpt.

Tesla’s Field theories

When he was eighty-one, Tesla stated he had completed a dynamic theory of gravity. He stated that it was “worked out in all details” and that he hoped to soon give it to the world.[68] The theory was never published. At the time of his announcement, it was considered by the scientific establishment to exceed the bounds of reason. Some believe that Tesla never fully developed the Unified Field Theory.

The bulk of the theory was developed between 1892 and 1894, during the period that he was conducting experiments with high frequency and high potential electromagnetism and patenting devices for their utilization. It was completed, according to Tesla, by the end of the 1930s. Tesla’s theory explained gravity using electrodynamics consisting of transverse waves (to a lesser extent) and longitudinal waves (for the majority). Reminiscent of Mach’s principle, Tesla stated in 1925 that; .There is no thing endowed with life – from man, who is enslaving the elements, to the nimblest creature – in all this world that does not sway in its turn. Whenever action is born from force, though it be infinitesimal, the cosmic balance is upset and the universal motion results..

Tesla was critical of Einstein’s relativity work, calling it:

….[a] magnificent mathematical garb which fascinates, dazzles and makes people blind to the underlying errors. The theory is like a beggar clothed in purple whom ignorant people take for a king…,its exponents are brilliant men but they are metaphysicists rather than scientists….

Tesla also argued:
“I hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.”

Tesla, also believed that much of Albert Einstein’s relativity theory had already been proposed by Ruder Bo.kovic, stating in an unpublished interview:
….the relativity theory, by the way, is much older than its present proponents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman Ruder Bo.kovic, the great philosopher, who, not withstanding other and multifold obligations, wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects. Bo.kovic dealt with relativity, including the so-called time-space continuum…”


The Last Piece of hard evidence:
 Energy From The Vacuum; Tesla vs. J.P. Morgan!


The Last Known Interview given by Nikola Tesla!

In 1933 to 1943 by Arthur Mathews, Province of Quebec, Canada.

To understand properly the first part of the story you will need a map of the province of Quebec, Canada. It was early in Spring that Major Henry Sanford of New York City came to Quebec with a number of friends. One of these friends was Nikola Tesla.

Major Sanford owned a large camp in the Quebec woods not far from a place called Lake Edwards. Major Sanford invited me to go with them to his camp. We met in Quebec City at the old Lake Saint John railway station. The Lake Saint John railway at that time operated the railway between Quebec City and Chicoutimi at Lake Saint John. Major Sanford had a private train consisting of two coaches and a baggage car. The baggage car was loaded with electrical equipment. One item of that equipment was a 75 KW generator set. This generator was driven with a gasoline motor due to the fact that Major Sanford’s camp was located at about almost 10 miles from the railway station and the only way to get there was by means of a foot path through the bush and a fortarge on which canoes could carry materials. And of course this meant that everything that we had had to be carried by hand. And then to make this more convenient, most of the heavy materials such as the 75 KW generator had been taken apart and packed in small containers.

We left that morning from Quebec at around 8:00 and I don’t remember exactly what time it was when we arrived at Sanford station but it was around noon I believe. Arriving at Sanford station, the train was placed on a siding and we unloaded the baggage car. And from there I will try to remember all the members in the party as we arrived at Sanford station. Major Sanford and Mrs. Sanford, there was a trained nurse Miss Kidd, and Tesla and myself and twelve Indian guides. The head guide or chief was a man named Gro Louis. The material was divided up amongst us and we all had as much as we could carry. Some of the parcels were very heavy and required two guides to carry them. There was no particular rush for we could go as slow or as fast as we pleased, admiring the beautiful woods as we walked along. So finally we arrived at the camp sometime late that evening.

My first job on arriving at the camp was to put the 75 KW generator together. When I completed the power plant we then built an exact model of a Tesla transformer which he had built at Colorado in 1898. I don’t remember the exact date but I believe this was in 1898. This transformer was to transmit power through the earth without using any wires. After the transmitting transformer had been built, we then built three other transformers to receive the power, which would be sent from this big transformer. The first one was located about ten miles away in the bush, the second transformer was located at Lake Saint John near Desbiens and the third transformer was built later on at Tadoussac which was on the river Saint Lawrence.

For the purpose of making any required adjustments Tesla first used the nearby transformer which was about ten miles from the transmitter. Power was then sent to this ten mile away transformer and the power sent was considerable and convinced Major Sanford that the idea was practical. After proving to Major Sanford that his wireless power idea was workable, Tesla then turned his attention to some new things. The first thing was radar and the war preventing idea. The radar was in fact part of this war preventor. It was the guide. TV was demonstrated and a voice operated typewriter and other things, which I will mention later on. Tesla had offered his idea of radar to the American government but whoever it was who investigated the idea did not think it was practical and so it was turned down.

One of the showpieces of Sanford was a gold wire aerial. This was used to receive short wave programs. This gold wire aerial was actually constructed by the Indian. I showed him how to do it and it was placed on top of two tall trees, which were about sixty-five feet apart. It was a gold plated aerial as I said. A cage type aerial which was used on the battleships at that time with twelve wires separated in the middle by a ring twelve inches in diameter tapering down to each end to two inches. At Sanford I constructed a number of short wave receivers which the major presented to some friends and the local hospital at Lake Edwards. Dr. Creed was one and he also presented one of the receivers to Gro Louis, the Indian guide. I should say the chief of the Indian guides.

Tesla also built a microwave receiver, which were very small indeed. One of the ideas of Tesla was a metal analyzer. This was very useful in finding out what certain pieces of metal were. I first used this at Ottawa in 1969. There was a large lump, chunk of metal had been discovered on the beach near Neuville and this piece of metal weighing something like three thousand pounds was taken to Bacarte Camp where they tried to find out what it was. It was a kind of a mystery and they were not able to find out what it was at Bacarte and then it was shipped to Ottawa to the national research council where they also did everything possible to find out what it was but they were not able to do that. Needless to say they could not be certain of what it was. The story went around that it fell from the sky and it was a part of a spaceship or something or other of that kind but no one could say exactly what it was. And so, in 1969 I was invited to go to Ottawa and test this with the tester, with the Tesla analyzer. I had, I still have in fact this invention of Tesla. Well, to shorten the story, I certainly found out what the piece of metal was using the Tesla analyzer.

Another wonder, it was a small portable TV machine. This TV machine could see through stone walls. In other words, like a camera, a special kind of camera, you pointed it at a wall and it could see anything on the other side of the wall. It recorded this on a tape of some kind and then you wind it up and you could transmit this picture which had been picked up through a stone wall and send it to a small screen. This screen of Sanford’s was mounted on the wall and it looked like a colored picture of some kind. I said, in other tapes, ah, oil painting TV because when it was operating that’s exactly what it looked like to me because it was like a picture in a nice frame on the wall and there were no visible wires to it but Tesla had a small box that he was operating from the table and as he operated this it could change these pictures that were seemingly coming from nowhere on this frame of some kind and it looked like, as I say, it looked like an oil painting and I had called it an oil painting TV. He had a camera with him during our trip through the bush and he had pictures recorded of us and the guide carrying parcels walking through the forest and he sent this picture to this oil painting picture and as I say it very much resembled an oil painting because it was in color. That’s the first I had heard of the TV, and remember, this was in 1932.

Another marvel was a small recording machine, something like our modern tape recorders but it had no moving parts. It had no tape or anything else. It simply recorded and would play back your recording at a push of a button just exactly like our tape recorders but it would record for an hour or so and play back, as I said, what was recorded without the use of tape or any moving parts whatever. There was no motor in it. Many of these ideas had been conceived by Tesla many years before but he did not have the opportunity to develop them and here at Sanford’s it was a beautiful place, a magnificent place, a beautiful workshop which had been constructed by Major Sanford, well equipped with almost everything you could think of.

Another fearful fantastic idea which Tesla developed with Sanford was his dark idea. This would also prevent wars. But would it? I believe that this could also be used to make war because the equipment could be carried in an airplane and it would float over a city and put it to dark. Not a bit of light anywhere would show. This is, to me, a most fearful idea. You turn on a switch and everything goes dark. There would be no electric lights, no lights in your car, your headlights would not show, if you strike a match it would burn but it would not show any light. No form of light whatever, instantly, the moment the switch is closed. So then Tesla said that if war started and the switch was turned on, the war would not be able to continue because nobody would be able to see. I wonder how it would be? I wonder if it would ever be used? Can you imagine what would happen in a big city, say at noontime, suddenly, not a pick of light anywhere; the sun would suddenly die out. Headlights of cars would not turn on and so it would be a terrible mess. And this apparatus, according to Tesla, could be put to work and control whole nations, either a city, or a village, a town, or the whole nation. All of America, all of Canada, of a press of a button. Is it a good idea? I really don’t know.

Apart from the very big things used all over the world, inventions of Tesla, there are a number of little things. Very important little things. For instance, the ignition system which, I believe, is used in almost every car in the world. It was invented by Tesla many years ago. But certainly all of the cars that I can think of use the same identical ignition system which was invented by Tesla at the beginning of the century and no one has been able to find a better system. The speedometer, which is also used in almost every car in the world, also invented by Tesla. So was the ship’s log. Most ships in the world use the Tesla Log.

The hydro system, that is to say, the method for driving generators to produce electricity from waterfalls, was one of the great inventions of Tesla. The first power plant in the entire world was Niagara Falls, which was built by the Westinghouse Company in 1895. It’s one of the few things, which had Tesla’s name on it up to recent years. Tesla also developed a number of ideas for helping overcome pain in the human being such as sciatica, rheumatism and all kinds of things like that and he uses a small electrical vibrator.

Another one of his great inventions was the electric car. He built the first one in 1897 and he drove from New York City to Buffalo, New York and it had an average speed of 94 miles an hour. This car, if it was built today, would cost one-cent a mile to operate and it would cost practically nothing for repairs because apart from the mechanical parts, that is to say the wheels and the steering apparatus where they would compose the only moving parts, the engine in this electric car is a small alternating current motor which runs at the tremendous speed of thirty thousand rpm and this is reduced to eighteen hundred by means of a fluid transmission, also the invention of Tesla. The whole electric car is a magnificent piece of work and it could be put in use today and save the public hundreds of billions of dollars now wasted in gasoline and oil and spare parts. I could give a few details about this electric car. You see, it does not use a storage battery. It uses the special primary battery and if you know anything about primary batteries you’ll know that the only part of a primary battery which fails is the negative plate. Any little dry cells you use for your flashlight, for instance, is the zinc which gives way, and when that gives way the battery goes dead.

Well now, Tesla invented a completely new kind of primary battery and in this primary battery, if the negative plate wears out, it can be replaced even by a child in a few seconds. And the battery, when installed in this electric car, will run that car five hundred miles before the battery needs to be attended to. And when the battery does need to be attended to it would take you ten minutes to remedy whatever is going on and the spare parts are all in the trunk. You have enough spare parts to keep that battery running twelve months of the year. You do not have to stop at the service station. You could run five hundred miles for instance at seventy five miles per hour, if you were allowed to do it of course, but you could run this car say fifty or sixty miles an hour right across the country and probably not have to stop more than fifteen minutes to attend to the batteries. S ome time in the future somebody will no doubt build this Tesla electric car but it will be when we have no more fuel oil or gasolineI don’t know how long the present oil supply will last. It certainly will not last forever so, we will have to have other means of transportation. Would it be by the Tesla electric car?

If you have read my book, The Wall of Light, you will know the first part is the life story of Tesla. This story was written by Tesla himself and you will note in this story that Tesla gives full credit to God for his ability to discover some amazing new ideas in the Bible. As I have mentioned before the microwave comes from the fourth chapter of Revelations. In many places in his work Tesla mentions the fact that he was inspired by Bible study to conceive his amazing ideas. His idea of the alternating current comes from the book of Matthew. In other words from the Trinity. Tesla explains that his microwave, for instance, is not what many others think it is. It is not a wave, it is a dimension. The actual dimension of the beam. Tesla clearly states that his microwave is a beam which grows smaller. But he states that it’s diameter is smaller than the hair of your head.

Another idea of Tesla is a locator. This will help you to find anything underground. It will help you to find metal deposits or liquid deposits such as island water. I wrote a story about this locator many years ago which was published in one of the radio magazines of that time and a man out west read my story and he wrote to me and he said that his father had died suddenly and left his money buried someplace on their three hundred acre farm and did I think that Tesla’s locator would help him to find it? Well I wrote back and told him that sure, if you can build the Tesla locator you certainly would be able to find it if your father put it in a metal box or a metal lined box. Because if it was in a wooden box and the money was in paper then it would be very difficult to find it but if the money was in cache, coins or if it was in a money box then I was fairly sure he would be able to find it. Well, to make the story shorter I sent him a diagram of this locator. This man built the locator and he found the money.

Another marvelous idea of Tesla was what he called the translator. This was not a very large affair either. It was something about the size of a small tape recorder and it had many buttons on it and you pushed one of these buttons to translate a language. In other words the button would be of Japanese for instance, you’d push the Japanese button and it would translate the Japanese into whatever language you wanted such as English, French, Chinese, what not and so on. Tesla also had a small gadget, which was a speed warner. This was about as big as a pocket wallet and once you were driving the car for instance he would set it and if you went too fast over the speed limit it would yell loudly and tell you if you were going too fast or not. There is no connection to the car whatever. You simply could carry this like a purse in your pocket. You set it for instance at fifty miles per hour and if you went over fifty miles an hour it would yell out.

Also at Sanford’s, Tesla built what he called a gravity motor. This was a tripod of three tall trees, the logs of three tall trees, latched together at the top and in the center of the top part there is a pulley and over this pulley was a rope and you handed this rope that goes down a shaft at the base and a weight on the other end and when the weight was coming down it was turning the shaft and you had free power. Free power, which would last as long as the rock was falling down, turning the shaft. Leonardo de Vinci was said to have built such a power plant. It was absolutely free and very useful but one difficult point was the fact that you had to wind it up.

Many people write to me asking the question where can they find the best books concerning the life of Tesla? I have been answering letters like that for many years, since the early twenties in fact, and I give the same answer to everybody that writes to me. Where can they find information, which is true about Tesla? Well, you can find it in copies of his patents. You can get those patents or copies of the patents in the Washington patent office, Washington D.C., United States of America. Now there are also lectures and articles, which Tesla had published before 1943, in other words before he died. Anything published in recent years might be a little bit altered, I don’t know. I don’t say that the present day publications are altered but if you want all the truth without any guess work get copies of the original papers, lectures, articles, and patents, and his life story which is published in the first part of my book The Wall of Light.

Tesla was a man who minded his own business and wanted other people to mind theirs. He did not like gossip. His private life was his life and it belonged to no one else. He did not interfere with other people’s business and he did not want anyone to interfere with his. Tesla was a down to earth kind of man. He was a Mechanical Engineer.

by Arthur Mathews; Edited, Frank Germano

References:
New York Times, July 11, 1935, p23, c.8
New York Herald Tribune, September 11, 1932
1936 unpublished interview, quoted in Anderson, L, ed. Nikola Tesla: Lecture Before the New York Academy of Sciences: The Streams of Lenard and Roentgen and Novel Apparatus for Their Production, April 6, 1897, reconstructed 1994.

WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICITY to ANY point on earth .. .To see what would happen if we were to build, and “operate” one of Tesla’s Magnifying Transmitters…click here: Two choices –

Yes, it could be built: Tesla’s Magnifying Transmitter – A historical Prospective. 

Or…no, we probably shouldn’t build one… Tesla- The Greatest “Hacker” Of All Time?!

Want to see Wardenclyffe today? : located in Shoreham, LI right on Route 25A, at the intersection with Tesla Street., the Wardenclyffe lab building is in good shape and looks much as it did a century ago (minus the dramatic tower), though it has become a bit overgrown.

Want to DRIVE to Wardenclyffe? It’s pretty easy to get to, being just off Route 25 on Long Island, NY. Click here for a link to a printable map from Yahoo.com

Owned today by “Agfa”, there are movements afoot to turn it into a museum. Check with Gary Peterson of 21st Century Books to see how you can assist in this historic building becoming a Nikola Tesla Museum, learning center, library, and R&D Laboratory. All that is left is pictured here to the right. Click on image to enlarge. Personally, all I can say is “what a damn shame.” If Tesla was allowed to finish the Magnifying Transmitter, and initiate its use, firstly in the United States of America, and I’m sure, later the entire world…we would have never become dependent on fossil fuels (Oil) and think for a moment what that would have meant for our environment. Just sit back and think about that. One last word regarding who pulled the plug on all this – the infamous J.P. Morgan. I usually wish no one ill, however, since we’re on the internet, I can’t say much more…it’s a kid-safe site…;)

Note: Tesla was depending on high earth conductivity to contain any energy that was not immediately used by subscribers. His proof of this was the existence of standing waves in the earth. I hope you have enjoyed the information presented on this page. I also hope that you will take something away with you – knowledge. Nikola Tesla was perhaps the most important figure in the twentieth century. Think of the world today, and what it would be like without the contributions Tesla gave us. To take it further, the next time you come home at night, hesitate for just one moment before you throw that light switch. Think of Tesla. Because of Tesla, that AC electricity flows from a power plant, through miles and miles of transmission lines, through sub stations and the like, and finally, at your whim, to that switch you now have your finger on. Tesla…our modern world relies on everything the man worked for. Pick up some books, below, and continue the study of, in my humble opinion, the greatest inventor that every lived.

Energy from the Vacuum; How J.P. Morgan Destroyed Nikola Tesla!

Used by permission, from: The Tom Bearden Website

“Energy from the Vacuum – Concepts & Principles”

“The Deliberate Discard of Asymmetric Maxwellian Systems, Thus Preventing COP>1.0

and Self-Powering Energy-from-the-Vacuum Systems”

T. E. Bearden and Leslie R. Pastor, 21 June 2007; Edited by Frank Germano

Foreword:

This is the background of how the present electrical engineering model (and practice) was severely curtailed to exclude COP>1.0 electrical power systems taking their excess EM energy directly from their interaction with the active medium (the active vacuum/spacetime). The ruthless suppression of Nikola Tesla also set the stage for the major cartels continuing to suppress subsequent overunity inventors from the 1890s to the present day.

Introduction:

Maxwell died in 1879 of stomach cancer, and at the time his own theory had not been accepted very much at all. Immediately the vectorists – notably Heaviside, Gibbs, and Hertz – began emasculating Maxwell’s 20 quaternion-like equations in 20 unknowns, into the present highly simplified vector algebra of much lower group symmetry. (Quaternions also have a much higher group symmetry than tensors, for those who believe tensors are the answer). This occurred in the 1880s and 1890s. Heaviside’s equations were tentatively selected as the basis for the new electrical engineering, just being created and being slowly placed into our universities.

To see a glimpse of what can be done in quaternion EM, see T. W. Barrett, “Tesla’s Nonlinear Oscillator-Shuttle-Circuit (OSC) Theory,” Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, 16(1), 1991, p. 23-41. Barrett – one of the cofounders of ultrawideband radar – shows that EM expressed in quaternions allows shuttling and storage of potentials in circuits, and also allows additional EM functioning of a circuit that a conventional EM analysis cannot reveal. He shows that Tesla’s patented circuits did exactly this sort of deliberate “shuttling” and control of the potential energy, quite contrary to what is thought possible in our present regular circuits and theory.

Barrett was so impressed by the novelty of Tesla’s discoveries in this respect, that he extended Tesla’s methods and obtained two patents of his own – on processes still used in various special communications systems. [See Terence W. Barrett, “Active Signalling Systems,” U.S. Patent No. 5,486,833, Jan. 23, 1996. A signaling system in time-frequency space for detecting targets in the presence of clutter and for penetrating media. 14 U.S. patents cited. 22 claims, 37 drawing sheets. See also Terence W. Barrett, “Oscillator-Shuttle-Circuit (OSC) Networks for Conditioning Energy in Higher-Order Symmetry Algebraic Topological Forms and RF Phase Conjugation,” U.S. Patent No. 5,493,691. Feb. 20, 1996.]. About nine years or so after Maxwell’s death, Hertz performed some experiments which proved the speed of light in vacuum was essentially as predicted by Maxwell. That started the gradual acceptance of Maxwell’s theory (i.e., particularly of the new highly truncated version of it).

Meanwhile, Nikola Tesla – the most important electrical scientist at the time – had discovered that the “medium” was active and that EM energy could be freely extracted directly from the active medium itself. He was hell-bent on doing just that and freely giving it to humanity. J. P. Morgan and Thomas Edison were associates, and Morgan was backing Edison. The two later took Edison’s electric company component and formed General Electric Company from it.

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the iron suppression of Tesla and his dream of giving the world free electrical energy extracted directly from the active medium (the active vacuum/spacetime itself). The electrical engineering model taught and studied in all our universities, beginning in the 1890s, was also ruthlessly curtailed to cast out all asymmetric Maxwellian systems and to also discard Heaviside’s odd and nearly incredible giant curled EM energy flow component actually accompanying every far more feeble Poynting energy flow in every EM system or circuit. Following the decimation of Tesla around the turn of the century, similar tactics have continued against follow-on inventors who discovered overunity systems and attempted to complete them and bring them to market. The suppression continues to this day, as can be attested by several living overunity inventors and inventor groups. For more than a century there has indeed been a giant, unwritten conspiracy of some of the most powerful cartels on earth, to continue the curtailment of the electrical engineering model and practice, and to continue to suppress overunity inventions and inventors.

J.P. Morgan Recognizes Tesla As a Mortal Enemy

Backed by Westinghouse, in the “electricity wars” Tesla had essentially annihilated J. P. Morgan and Edison on Edison’s intended DC electrical power cartel (a DC power plant every 20 miles!) by winning the contract for electrification of Niagara Falls and by installing the much more practical and much cheaper Tesla AC power system. Morgan, who was determinedly building up a giant financial empire, was also a very ruthless man who brooked no opposition. Morgan was funding Edison, and – after the destruction of their intended DC power empire by Tesla – Morgan recognized Tesla as a dangerous arch foe, and he was determined to destroy Tesla completely and remove him as a threat. He also realized that, if Tesla were permitted to give the world free EM energy extracted from the active medium and needing no fuel consumption, then much of Morgan’s own ambitions (which included future forays into the emerging giant fuel industry) would be totally thwarted. So Tesla had to go, and he had to go completely.

Economic Paralysis of Westinghouse

Westinghouse – a decent man who had liked Tesla and backed him (when Tesla, at the time) was using a pick and shovel to dig ditches to pay for his daily food – then fell on bad times, and was headed for bankruptcy. He had signed a contract with Tesla to pay Tesla very nice royalties on the AC power systems, and this represented several hundred millions of dollars. Westinghouse affirmed to Tesla that, even though he went bankrupt, he would pay Tesla as long as he, Westinghouse, had a dollar in his pocket.

Tesla deeply appreciated Westinghouse’s warm friendship and Westinghouse backing him when no one else would. In a remarkable gesture of profound gratitude, Tesla simply tore up the contract, freeing Westinghouse and saving him from total financial ruin. But financially Westinghouse was unable to further fund large projects. This put Tesla right where Morgan wanted him.

How Morgan Trapped Tesla and Destroyed Him

Accordingly, to finance his dream of capturing free electrical energy from the active medium (from the vacuum/spacetime), Tesla had to turn to Morgan for financing. Morgan cynically agreed to finance Tesla (and the free energy project), but only after Tesla agreed to sign over 51% controlling interest in all his (Tesla’s) inventions. Tesla signed the agreement, and Morgan gave him about half of the money needed for the project at Long Island.

But Morgan had put Tesla in an iron trap from which there was no escape. He now controlled all Tesla’s inventions and their use, so he had Tesla paralyzed in that respect. And then later he simply refused to give Tesla the rest of the money needed to finish the project. Consequently Tesla was halted. He declined financially and went totally bankrupt. He became totally destitute, reduced to living in a hotel room on the good graces of the hotel and a small patron or two. He never recovered from this absolute destitution until his death in 1943.

Thus Morgan totally crushed Tesla with an iron hand, thereby permanently removing Tesla as an unacceptable threat to Morgan’s empire and removing Tesla’s threat of producing and giving away free energy from the active medium. All the above is well-known. But there is another part of the story that has escaped recognition. And that strange part of Morgan’s actions has profoundly affected all humanity and this entire planet and biosphere for more than a century.

The Rest of the Story

Morgan was not only ruthless but extremely thorough. When the “new” Heaviside equations were tentatively accepted as the new “Maxwell’s theory” to be taught in the electrical engineering just beginning to be set up in some universities etc., Morgan also directed his close scientific advisors to assure that this new “electrical theory” was harmless and did not contain or teach any of Tesla’s “energy freely from the active medium” systems. In other words, not only was it essential to suppress the present Tesla, but it was essential to suppress all the future “Teslas”.

At the time, scientists did not have scientific jobs waiting all over, as they do today. A scientist at the university was not really too well paid, and a really good scientist would often seek and obtain a job as a consultant to one of the rising industrialists such as Morgan. Indeed, Edison’s UK group already had an electrical scientist consultant of the highest caliber – Dr. John Ambrose Fleming in England. Fleming became consultant to the Edison group in 1881 and continued as such for 10 years. Fleming was an honorable and ethical man, and of course would not personally engage in skullduggery.

But all Morgan/Edison had to do was assign a sufficiently good scientist of their own to have a personal conversation with Fleming, since Fleming had studied directly and extensively under Maxwell himself.  Fleming was thoroughly familiar with the characteristics of Maxwell’s theory, and he was also thoroughly familiar with Heaviside’s emasculated vector algebra subset. The conversation would just be a group theory conversation, pleasant but adroit, and it would draw out from Fleming (who was of highest character and ethics) the exact technical characteristics of the Heaviside model – particularly with respect to any potential EM system taking excess free energy from a hypothetical active medium.

Modern group theory was founded by the brilliant teenager Évariste Galois, whose work was later published and developed after Galois’ unfortunate quick death on May 31, 1832 from being fatally wounded in a duel the previous day. The brilliant but erratic Galois was only 20 years old when he perished. But later his work was to profoundly affect mathematics, electrodynamics, physics, and all other sciences.

In April of 1830, Galois (1811-1832), a student at the École Normale, had published “An Analysis of a Memoir on the Algebraic Resolution of Equations” in the Bulletin de Ferussac. In June, he published “Notes on the Resolution of Numerical Equations” and “On the Theory of Numbers.” These and a later memoir make up what is now called Galois theory. Galois’s manuscripts written just before his death in a duel, with added annotations by Joseph Liouville, were published in 1846 in the Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées. In 1870, with the publication of Camille Jordan’s Traité des Substitutions, group theory became a fully established and very important part of mathematics and science.

So in 1881, Fleming most certainly would have been well aware and conversant in group theory and the group symmetry of a given algebra, and thus of the characteristics of the systems that were included in a given algebraic model. The necessary knowledge to assess the Heaviside vector equations was already there when Morgan’s need (to suppress Nikola Tesla and to render the reduced Heaviside equations harmless) became paramount in the late 1880s.

The news about the group symmetry characteristics of Heaviside’s equations was not good. Those Heaviside vector equations still included some of Maxwell’s asymmetrical systems. And any EM system that freely receives energy from its active environment, and uses it to freely power its loads, is an asymmetrical Maxwellian system a priori. Hence engineers who were taught such a theory would be able to eventually design and build some of Tesla’s “free EM energy from the active medium” systems.

Morgan’s response would have been short and direct: “Fix it!” Obviously the fix was to simply remove the remaining asymmetry of the Heaviside model’s equations. It is not too hard a job to convince mathematicians to change asymmetry anyway, since they tend to worship “the beauty of symmetry” and asymmetry is considered “vulgar”.

Lorentz’s Symmetrization of the Heaviside Equations

H. A. Lorentz was the man who was elicited to do the necessary “symmetrization” with ease, thereby accomplishing exactly what Morgan decreed to his own advisors that must be done: Get rid of those Tesla systems capable of taking and freely using EM energy from the active medium.  H. A. Lorentz (with the “t”) simply lifted and used what L. V. Lorenz (without the “t”) had already done.

For the deliberate “fixing” of the already sharply curtailed Heaviside equations, see H. A. Lorentz, “La Théorie électromagnétique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants,” [The Electromagnetic Theory of Maxwell and its application to moving bodies], Arch. Néerl. Sci., Vol. 25, 1892, p. 363-552. [Also in H. A. Lorentz, Collected Papers, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, vol. 2, pp. 168-238, esp. p. 168.] This is the work that Lorentz cites later (in 1895) for his proof of the symmetrical regauging theorems (the two equations of symmetrical regauging).

This is the “symmetrization” (at the direction of J. P. Morgan) of the Heaviside equations that arbitrarily discarded all remaining asymmetrical Maxwellian systems – thus discarding all systems that receive excess EM energy freely from the “active medium” (active vacuum) and could use this free energy to power loads and themselves. With this “fix”, Morgan was assured that Tesla’s discovery of the active medium – and that EM energy could be extracted from it – would never be taught.

Electrical engineering was just beginning to be formed and started in those days, and so almost from its inception electrical engineering has used these “fixed” Heaviside equations (erroneously calling the resulting crippled model “Maxwell’s theory” which was and is a blatant falsity). Hence our electrical engineers – almost from the beginning – have thought, designed, built, and deployed only that subset of Maxwellian systems that self-destroy any use of excess energy from the vacuum, hence self-preventing having COP>1.0 and self-powering EM systems taking their excess input energy directly from the active vacuum.

It also prevented electrical engineers from realizing how their circuits are actually powered, and where the energy actually comes from. It does not come from cranking the shaft of the generator! For a clear exposé of how a symmetrical electrical power circuit and system kills its own source, and also to see what actually powers the external circuit in a generator-powered system, see “Figure 2. Operation of a Symmetrical Electrical Power System,” in T. E. Bearden, “Engineering the Active Vacuum: On the Asymmetrical Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Magnetic Vector Potential A vs. Magnetic Field B.”

For an excellent paper adroitly pointing out Lorentz’s propensity for using other people’s work but taking or receiving credit for it himself, see J. D. Jackson and L. B. Okun, “Historical roots of gauge invariance,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 73, July 2001, p. 663-680. For the Lorentz symmetrical regauging as used by our present electrical engineers and classical electrodynamicists, see J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, Wiley, 1999. For the vacuum, Maxwell’s (Heaviside’s) equations reduce to two coupled equations, shown as equations 6.10 and 6/11 on p. 246. The Lorentz regauging condition is applied by Jackson on p. 240, resulting in two inhomogeneous wave equations given as equations 6.15 and 6.16. The Lorentz condition is given in equation 6.14 on p. 240.

Elimination of Heaviside’s Giant Curled EM Energy Flow Component

Lorentz also was apparently impressed a second time, in 1900, to further reduce the already seriously reduced symmetrized Heaviside equations, in order to specifically eliminate the newly discovered giant Heaviside curled EM energy flow that – unknown to our present electrical engineers – accompanies every Poynting energy flow component (which is diverged into the circuit to power it), but is itself (the curled component) not diverged and thus is just wasted because it normally does not interact. The giant Heaviside curled EM energy flow component is more than a trillion times greater in magnitude than the accounted Poynting diverged EM energy flow component. Thus the Poynting energy flow theory in our present electrical engineering textbooks and curricula is only a pale shadow of the actual energy flowing in conjunction with an electrical system or circuit.

In Morgan’s view, it would simply not do to have all the future electrical engineers taught (and understand) that every generator already pours out more than a trillion times as much EM energy output as the mechanical shaft energy input we crank into the generator shaft! If they were to all know this, then inevitably some very sharp young doctoral candidates or post docs would figure out how to freely tap some of that available giant Heaviside curled energy flow component. And they would extract some of that giant energy flow and freely use it, thereby ushering in Tesla’s “free EM energy from the active medium” after all.

Here again, Morgan would simply have ordered the problem “fixed”. And again, Lorentz “fixed it” for him very easily, by introducing the standard little surface integral trick that retains the diverged small component (the Poynting component) but discards the huge nondiverged curled component. In other words, Lorentz altered the actually-used energy flow vector by throwing away that giant Heaviside component quite arbitrarily. Thus the Heaviside giant curled EM energy flow component is no longer accounted or even recognized in electrical engineering, but it still physically accompanies every accounted Poynting energy flow component in every EM system or circuit. [To see the dirty work, see H. A. Lorentz, Vorlesungen über Theoretische Physik an der Universität Leiden, Vol. V, Die Maxwellsche Theorie (1900-1902), Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H., Leipzig, 1931, “Die Energie im elektromagnetischen Feld,” p. 179-186. Figure 25 on p. 185 shows the Lorentz concept of integrating the Poynting vector around a closed cylindrical surface surrounding a volumetric element. This is the procedure which arbitrarily selects only a small diverged component of the energy flow associated with a circuit—specifically, the small Poynting component being diverged into the circuit to power it—and then treats that tiny component as the “entire” energy flow. Thereby Lorentz arbitrarily discarded all the extra huge Heaviside curled energy transport component which is usually not diverged into the circuit conductors at all, does not interact with anything locally, and is just wasted.]

Justification for Removal of the Giant Heaviside Curled Energy Flow Component

To justify getting rid of the giant curled (and usually nondiverged) Heaviside energy flow component, Lorentz smoothly and slyly stated that “it does nothing and so it has no physical significance.” And that same smooth statement is used by our scientific community to this day to justify the emasculation of the actual energy flow vector and to use only the feeble Poynting component of it. E.g., quoting Jackson: “…the Poynting vector is arbitrary to the extent that the curl of any vector field can be added to it. Such an added term can, however, have no physical consequences. Hence it is customary to make the specific choice …” [J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Second Edition, Wiley, 1975, p. 237].

Jackson’s statement (as is Lorentz’s statement) is correct only in a special relativistic situation, where vector analysis holds and the divergence of the curl is zero. However, if we deliberately introduce a general relativistic (GR) situation or subset, with synchronization of the output of that GR section and the input of the special relativistic section, then vector analysis fails and the divergence of the curl is not necessarily zero at all. So Jackson’s statement is correct only part of the time (which is usually most of the time since with rare exceptions most electrical power situations are special relativity situations!

Indeed, Jackson’s statement (and Lorentz’s little closed surface integration trick) can be deliberately violated at will, and it has been so violated since 1967 by the NRAM (negative resonance absorption of the medium) process in optical physics. We leave analysis of that process and where the excess energy comes from and how, for another day and paper. [See Thomas E. Bearden and Kenneth D. Moore, “Increasing the Coefficient of Performance of Electromagnetic Power Systems by Extracting and Using Excess EM Energy from the Heaviside Energy Flow Component”. This is a Provisional Patent Application, filed and obtained in Oct. 2005. It is now released into public domain and freely given away to the public domain.

Suffice it to say that NRAM optical physicists every year regularly perform true COP = 18 optimized experiments, without understanding the true source of the excess energy received from the active vacuum environment. To get their papers published, they are not allowed to use the term “excess emission” (they must use the mind-numbing term “negative absorption”). They are also not allowed to discuss the thermodynamics of the process (which when optimized in the IR or UV gives COP = 18), but can only point out the “increase in the reaction cross section” because of the self-resonance of the charged particles of the absorbing medium as compared to more normal static charged particles in a static absorbing medium.

Thus our electrical engineers and scientists today are totally unaware that every generator already pours out more than a trillion times as much EM energy flow from the vacuum, as is in the mechanical energy flow we input to the generator shaft. This even though in our leading universities our own NRAM optical physicists continue to experimentally prove it, without understanding where the excess EM energy comes from.

This second “fix” by Lorentz then finished Morgan’s suppression of the “new electrical engineering science” so that it would not contain asymmetrical Maxwellian systems nor would it contain Heaviside’s giant curled EM energy flow component. With these changes, Morgan (using Lorentz’s services) deliberately crippled electrical engineering and electrical power systems for more than 100 years, and guaranteed that COP>1.0 and self-powering Maxwellian systems – permitted by nature and Maxwell’s original theory – would not be built by our electrical power engineers.

Tesla’s Statements Showing His Intention

To show Tesla’s intent to give the world cheap clean energy extracted freely from the active medium, here are some appropriate Tesla quotations:

“Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world’s machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas, or any other of the common fuels.” [Nikola Tesla].

“Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point in the universe. This idea is not novel… We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus, who derives power from the earth; we find it among the subtle speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians…Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static or kinetic? If static our hopes are in vain; if kinetic – and this we know it is, for certain – then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature.” [Nikola Tesla, in a speech in New York to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1891. Quoted from his biography, Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time].

“We have to evolve means for obtaining energy from stores which are forever inexhaustible, to perfect methods which do not imply consumption and waste of any material whatever. I now feel sure that the realization of that idea is not far off. …the possibilities of the development I refer to, namely, that of the operation of engines on any point of the earth by the energy of the medium…” [Nikola Tesla, during an address in 1897 commemorating his installation of generators at Niagara Falls.].

“Whatever our resources of primary energy may be in the future, we must, to be rational, obtain it without consumption of any material.” [Nikola Tesla, 1900].

Deciphering Energy Flow

“…only the entire surface integral of N [their notation for the Poynting vector] contributes to the energy balance. Paradoxical results may be obtained if one tries to identify the Poynting vector with the energy flow per unit area at any point.” [Wolfgang Panofsky and Melba Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA, 1962, third printing 1969, p.180].

“It is possible to introduce the Poynting vector S, defined by S = ExH, and regard it as the intensity of energy flow at a point. This procedure is open to criticism since we could add to S any vector whose divergence is zero without affecting [the basic integration procedure’s result].”… “…fortunately, we are rarely concerned with the energy flow at a point. In most applications we need the rate at which energy is crossing a closed surface.” [D.S. Jones, The Theory of Electromagnetism, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1964, p. 52, 53.].

“It is important to realize that in physics today, we have no knowledge of what energy is.” [Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, Vol. 1, 1964, p. 4-2].

In the hard physics literature, rigorous proof that eliminating the arbitrary Lorentz symmetry condition provides systems having free additional energy currents from the vacuum is given by M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., “Classical Electrodynamics without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum,” Physica Scripta, Vol. 61, 2000, p. 513-517. Quoting from p. 513:

“It is shown that if the Lorentz condition is discarded, the Maxwell-Heaviside field equations become the Lehnert equations, indicating the presence of charge density and current density in the vacuum. The Lehnert equations are a subset of the O(3) Yang-Mills field equations. Charge and current density in the vacuum are defined straightforwardly in terms of the vector potential and scalar potential, and are conceptually similar to Maxwell’s displacement current, which also occurs in the classical vacuum. A demonstration is made of the existence of a time dependent classical vacuum polarization which appears if the Lorentz condition is discarded. Vacuum charge and current appear phenomenologically in the Lehnert equations but fundamentally in the O(3) Yang-Mills theory of classical electrodynamics. The latter also allows for the possibility of the existence of vacuum topological magnetic charge density and topological magnetic current density. Both O(3) and Lehnert equations are superior to the Maxwell-Heaviside equations in being able to describe phenomena not amenable to the latter. In theory, devices can be made to extract the energy associated with vacuum charge and current.”

One of the authors has remarked:

“This has led to one of the greatest ironies in history: All the hydrocarbons ever burned, all the steam turbines that ever turned the shaft of a generator, all the rivers ever dammed, all the nuclear fuel rods ever consumed, all the windmills and waterwheels, all the solar cells, and all the chemistry in all the batteries ever produced, have not directly delivered a single watt into the external circuit’s load. All that incredible fuel consumption and energy extracted from the environment has only been used to continually restore the source dipole that our own closed current loop circuits are deliberately designed to destroy faster than the load is powered.” [Thomas E. Bearden, “Extracting and Using Electromagnetic Energy from the Active Vacuum,” Modern Nonlinear Optics, Part 2. Second Edition, Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 119, Edited by Myron W. Evans. Series Editors I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, John Wiley and Sons, 2001, p. 691-192].

“…[There is] .. an often-overlooked feature inherent in the law that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Rigorously, work is defined as changing the form of energy. When one joule of energy performs one joule of work, one joule of energy still remains, but in an altered form. If that remaining joule of energy has its form changed yet again, another joule of work has been done. And so on.” [M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., “Classical Electrodynamics without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum,” Physica Scripta, Vol. 61, 2000, p. 515-516].

The Result Is the Horribly Crippled CEM/EE Model We Have and Use Today

As can be seen, from Morgan’s personal view that Tesla and the new Heaviside theory were unacceptable threats to his rising great financial empire, the ruthless Morgan felt fully justified in having the EE theory “fixed” and crippled, to permanently eliminate all asymmetrical Maxwellian systems from the Heaviside theory, and later also to eliminate Heaviside’s own giant curled EM energy flow component as well. In this way, Morgan directly assured the removal of self-powering and COP>1.0 asymmetrical electrical systems receiving and using excess free energy from the vacuum.

Regarding Tesla as his mortal enemy, Morgan also felt fully justified in shackling and then figuratively “imprisoning” Tesla financially for the rest of his life, totally destroying Tesla from any further open research and development that would ever again challenge Morgan’s escalating empire and huge cartels. Interestingly, Heaviside also wound up being a near-total hermit, living in a little garret apartment.

So eerily, more than a century ago and along with its very birthing, our “modern” classical electrodynamics and electrical engineering science was deliberately mutilated and crippled, specifically so that COP>1.0 and self-powering electrical systems – asymmetrically powering loads extracted from “free EM wind energy flows” from the vacuum/space itself – would never be known or developed by our electrical engineers.

Since then, hundreds of thousands of EEs have been graduated worldwide. Electrical engineering (with its deliberately crippled CEM/EE model) has become a giant part of our science, technology, culture, and society. Everything – from our electric lights to our refrigerators and heat pumps, radios and television sets, auto ignitions, lights and power for our cities, etc. – is now using this horribly emasculated CEM/EE model. It has directly prevented struggling nations having no oil or gas resources from achieving a modern economy (which is based on cheap energy). This has left those nations impoverished, with their peoples starving and miserable and disease-wracked. Hundreds of millions of deaths from starvation and disease have resulted worldwide. It has “welded into our minds and our very brains” the mistaken notion that – other than a wee bit of wind power, water power, solar power, etc. – we can only have “energy from consumption of fuel”.

So we have Morgan’s ruthlessness, and the present totally inexcusable lack of insight by our own scientists and engineers (and particularly our scientific leadership) – to thank for the present escalating “world energy crisis” and its resulting world-wide, environmental, and epochal consequences.

What Must Be Done

The straightforward answer, of course, is that our scientists need to rapidly correct and update that horribly flawed CEM/EE model (and the entire electrical engineering technology and science being taught in all universities worldwide) that Morgan deliberately shaped us into. We must firmly remove Morgan’s dead iron boot from the back of everyone’s neck, reintroduce Maxwell’s actual higher group symmetry EM theory (updated as necessary), and restore and accomplish Tesla’s dream of providing the world cheap, clean EM energy directly from the seething vacuum/spacetime.

If “energy from fuel consumption” is the problem because fuel supply is tapering off while demand is increasing, then “energy without fuel consumption” is the solution. Windmills, solar arrays, and hydroelectric systems can give some relief, but they are only a drop in the bucket. The only complete and final solution (and one that is cheap, clean, and quick) is to shift our main interest to “energy from the vacuum”.

Quantum field theory already tells us that we simply cannot separate the charge from its ongoing fierce virtual particle interaction with the vacuum. Quoting Aitchison:

“…the concept of a ‘single particle’ actually breaks down in relativistic quantum field theory with interactions, because the interactions between ‘the particle’ and the vacuum fluctuations (or virtual quanta) cannot be ignored.” [I. J. R. Aitchison, “Nothing’s Plenty: The Vacuum in Modern Quantum Field Theory,” Contemporary Physics, 26(4), 1985, p. 357.].

Indeed, in modern physics that vacuum interaction generates all forces in nature. Again quoting Aitchison:

“Forces, in quantum field theory, are understood as being due to the exchange of virtual quanta…” [Ibid., p. 372].

Every charge in the universe already totally violates both the second law of equilibrium thermodynamics and the sad old electrical engineering model. From its very formation, the charge simply sits there and unceasingly pours out real photons – real, usable, observable EM energy – in all directions at light speed. This process forms the so-called “static” EM fields associated with that source charge; the “static” fields are not static at all, but are nonequilibrum steady state (NESS) thermodynamic systems associated with that charge.

Quoting Van Flandern on the question of a static field actually being made of finer parts in continuous motion:

“To retain causality, we must distinguish two distinct meanings of the term ‘static’. One meaning is unchanging in the sense of no moving parts. The other meaning is sameness from moment to moment by continual replacement of all moving parts. We can visualize this difference by thinking of a waterfall. A frozen waterfall is static in the first sense, and a flowing waterfall is static in the second sense. Both are essentially the same at every moment, yet the latter has moving parts capable of transferring momentum, and is made of entities that propagate. …So are … fields for a rigid, stationary source frozen, or are they continually regenerated? Causality seems to require the latter.” [Tom Van Flandern, “The speed of gravity – What the experiments say,” Physics Letters A, Vol. 250, Dec. 21, 1998, p. 8-9].

We Must Also Recognize the Source Charge Problem and Its Solution

Every charge is continually extracting the necessary input virtual state energy to support its steady emission of observable energy, from its seething virtual particle reaction with the vacuum. This is done without any observable energy input to the charge! Quoting Sen:

“The connection between the field and its source has always been and still is the most difficult problem in classical and quantum electrodynamics.” [D. K. Sen, Fields and/or Particles, Academic Press, London and New York, 1968, p. viii].

Quoting Kosyakov:

“A generally acceptable, rigorous definition of radiation has not as yet been formulated.” …. “The recurring question has been: Why is it that an electric charge radiates but does not absorb light waves despite the fact that the Maxwell equations are invariant under time reversal?” [B. P. Kosyakov, “Radiation in electrodynamics and in Yang-Mills theory,” Soviet Phys. Usp., 35(2), Feb. 1992, p. 135, 141].

So there is no “energy” crisis at all, and there never has been!  Every charge and dipole in the universe continually pours out real, usable, EM energy, and the original charges of the universe have been doing it for 15 or so billion years, since the formation of the universe. They will freely continue another 15 billion years if the universe lasts that long.

Instead of an “energy” crisis, we have an “energy from fuel” crisis because there is a finite supply of fuel and it is “topping off” and declining in availability, while the demand for energy is escalating. And since we erroneously insist that we can only have “energy from fuel” primarily, then we have an escalating “energy from fuel” crisis because we have an escalating fuel crisis.

Again, the solution obviously is “energy without fuel”. And one must use energy from a part of the external environment that is 100% dependable, never ceasing or faltering, and available at every point in the universe. Energy from the vacuum is indeed that solution.

Because of its peculiar continual interaction with the active vacuum, one cannot regard a solitary charge as a “very small” thing having (access to) only a very small energy. Indeed, the charge polarizes its surrounding virtual state vacuum with charge of opposite sign. So the “charge” must be modeled as two infinite and opposite charges, each having infinite energy. Our instruments, peering through the giant external screening charge at the “bare charge” inside, sees only the finite difference of these two infinite charges. And that difference is the value of the classical charge printed in the electrical engineering textbooks. Quoting Nobelist Weinberg:

“[The total energy of the atom] depends on the bare mass and bare charge of the electron, the mass and charge that appear in the equations of the theory before we start worrying about photon emissions and reabsorptions. But free electrons as well as electrons in atoms are always emitting and reabsorbing photons that affect the electron’s mass and electric charge, and so the bare mass and charge are not the same as the measured electron mass and charge that are listed in tables of elementary particles. In fact, in order to account for the observed values (which of course are finite) of the mass and charge of the electron, the bare mass and charge must themselves be infinite. The total energy of the atom is thus the sum of two terms, both infinite: the bare energy that is infinite because it depends on the infinite bare mass and charge, and the energy shift … that is infinite because it receives contributions from virtual photons of unlimited energy.” [Steven Weinberg, Dreams of a Final Theory, Vintage Books, Random House, 1993, p. 109-110.].

We can easily show the production of a steady and unending stream of real, usable EM energy from the vacuum, at will. Simply lay an electret or charged capacitor on a permanent magnet, so that the E-field of the electrical component and the H-field of the magnet are orthogonal. Then even according to the standard EE textbooks and their Poynting energy flow theory, that silly gadget will sit there and freely and continuously pour out a real Poynting EM energy flow S, given by the simple equation S = E X H.

So we can produce all the “free EM energy winds from the vacuum” that we wish. Easily, cheaply, and cleanly. Anywhere, anytime. The only problem then is to learn how to build an asymmetric “EM windmill” that intercepts and collects some of that steadily flowing energy, and then dissipates it in the external loads without dissipating half of it back in the “free energy flow gadget” to destroy it.

Again, In the hard physics literature, rigorous proof that eliminating the arbitrary Lorentz condition provides systems having usable free additional energy currents from the vacuum is given by M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., “Classical Electrodynamics without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum,” Physica Scripta, Vol. 61, 2000, p. 513-517. Quoting the abstract:

“It is shown that if the Lorentz condition is discarded, the Maxwell-Heaviside field equations become the Lehnert equations, indicating the presence of charge density and current density in the vacuum. The Lehnert equations are a subset of the O(3) Yang-Mills field equations. Charge and current density in the vacuum are defined straightforwardly in terms of the vector potential and scalar potential, and are conceptually similar to Maxwell’s displacement current, which also occurs in the classical vacuum. A demonstration is made of the existence of a time dependent classical vacuum polarization which appears if the Lorentz condition is discarded. Vacuum charge and current appear phenomenologically in the Lehnert equations but fundamentally in the O(3) Yang-Mills theory of classical electrodynamics. The latter also allows for the possibility of the existence of vacuum topological magnetic charge density and topological magnetic current density. Both O(3) and Lehnert equations are superior to the Maxwell-Heaviside equations in being able to describe phenomena not amenable to the latter. In theory, devices can be made to extract the energy associated with vacuum charge and current.”

The bits and pieces of a dramatically corrected and extended electrical engineering model and electrical science are already there in the various areas of physics, just waiting to be integrated into a true and “fitted” model of “EM energy freely and copiously extracted from the vacuum”. Indeed, the higher group symmetry electrodynamics models are already generated and available in physics – such as the O(3) electrodynamics developed by Myron Evans and later extended by him into an elegant Einstein-Cartan-Evans (ECE) unified field theory. Quoting Evans from his earlier O(3) electrodynamics:

“…the acceptance of a structured vacuum described by an O(3) gauge group leads directly to the existence of novel charges and currents in the vacuum.  These are conserved, or Noether, currents and charges and are clearly topological in origin.  They spring from the fact that the vacuum is a topological space.  Four such entities emerge: [1] A topological vacuum electric charge, also proposed empirically by Lehnert et al.  [2] A topological vacuum electric current, also proposed empirically by Lehnert et al.  [3] A topological vacuum magnetic charge, proposed also by Barrett and Harmuth.  [4] A vacuum topological magnetic current, proposed also by Barrett and Harmuth. … Each of these four objects can provide energy, which can be loosely termed ‘vacuum energy’: energy coming from the topology of the vacuum.” [Myron W. Evans, “O(3) Electrodynamics,” in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, 3 Vols., edited by M.W. Evans, Wiley, New York, 2001, Part 1, p. 84].

To save our own nation and the Western world from a giant and impending economic collapse because of the inane “energy from fuel” crisis, we must unleash our very best scientists and researchers – particularly the young and more vigorous ones – on solving this problem. We must quickly correct and update the electrical engineering model that was so deliberately “fixed” at Morgan’s command. And we must unleash our sharp young professors, doctoral candidates, and post doctoral scientists to quickly research and develop new asymmetrical Maxwellian systems that finally – after more than a century of delay – utilize the full extent of Maxwell’s 1865 quaternion-like theory prior to the 1880s and 1890s mutilation of it after Maxwell was already dead.

Hope this one got ya thinking!

Frank D Germano
Global Energy Technologies, Inc

 

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