The World System of Power; “Wardenclyffe”
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Shoreham, Long Island, New York
THE year 1900 marked to Tesla not only the opening of a new century but also the beginning of the world-superpower and radio-broadcasting era. With the encouragement of J. P. Morgan to spur him on, if he could accommodate any more spurring than his own inner drive furnished, and with $150,000 in cash from the same source, he was set to embark upon a gigantic venture, the building of Wardenclyffe Station, a world wireless-power and a world broadcasting station.
The cash on hand would be totally inadequate to finance the project to completion, but this did not deter him from making a start. He needed a laboratory both to replace the Houston Street establishment, which had become entirely inadequate, and to include equipment of the type employed at Colorado Springs, but designed for use in the actual world-broadcasting process. The location was determined as the result of an arrangement he made with James S. Warden, manager and director of the Suffolk County Land Company, a lawyer and banker from the West who had acquired two thousand acres of land at Shoreham, in Suffolk County, Long Island, about sixty miles from New York. The land was made the basis of a real-estate development under the name Wardenclyffe.
Tesla visualized a power-and-broadcasting station which would employ thousands of persons. He undertook the establishment, eventually, of a Radio City, something far more ambitious than the enterprise in Rockefeller Center in New York which bears this name today. Tesla planned to have all wavelength channels broadcast from a single station, a project which would have given him a complete monopoly of the radio-broadcasting business. What an opportunity nearsighted businessmen of his day overlooked in not getting in on his project! But in that day Tesla was about the only one who visualized modern broadcasting.
Everyone else visualized wireless as being useful only for sending telegraphic communications between ship and shore and across the ocean. Mr. Warden saw possibilities of a sort in Tesla’s plan, however, and offered him a tract of two hundred acres, of which twenty acres were cleared, for his power station, with the expectation that the two thousand men who would shortly be employed in the station would build homes on convenient sites in the remainder of the 2,000-acre tract. Tesla accepted.
Stanford White, the famous designer of many churches and other architectural monuments throughout the country, was one of Tesla’s friends. He now disclosed to the famous architect his vision of an industrial “city beautiful” and sought his cooperation in realizing his dream. Mr. White was enthusiastic about the idea and, as his contribution to Tesla’s work, offered to underwrite the cost of designing the strange tower the inventor sketched, and all of the architectural work involved in the general plan for the city. The actual work was done by W. D. Crow, of East Orange, N. J., one of Mr. White’s associates, who later became famous as a designer of hospitals and other institutional buildings.
It was a fantastic-looking tower, with strange structural limitations, which Mr. Crow found himself designing. Tesla required a tower, about 154 feet high, to support at its peak a giant copper electrode 100 feet in diameter and shaped like a gargantuan doughnut with a tubular diameter of twenty feet. (This was later changed to a hemispherical electrode.)
The tower would have to be a skeletonized structure, built almost entirely of wood, metal to be reduced to an utter minimum and any metal fixtures employed to be of copper. No engineering data were available on wood structures of this height and type. The structure Tesla required had a large amount of “sail area,” or surface exposed to wind, concentrated at the top, creating stresses that had to be provided for in a tower that itself possessed only limited stability. Mr. Crow solved the engineering problems and then the equally difficult task of incorporating esthetic qualities in such an edifice.
When the design was completed another difficulty was encountered. None of the well-known builders could be induced to undertake the task of erecting the tower. A competent framer, associated with Norcross Bros., who were a large contracting firm in those days, finally took over the contract, although he, too, expressed fears that the winter gales might overturn the structure. (It stood, however, for a dozen years. When the Government, for military reasons decided it was necessary to remove this conspicuous landmark during the First World War, heavy charges of dynamite were necessary in order to topple it, and even then it remained intact on the ground like a fallen Martian invader out of Wells’ “War of the Worlds.”)
The tower was completed in 1902, and with it a large low brick building more than 100 feet square which would provide quarters for the powerhouse and laboratory. While the structures were being built, Tesla commuted every day from the Waldorf-Astoria to Wardenclyffe, arriving at the nearby Shoreham station shortly after eleven am and remaining until three-thirty. He was always accompanied by a man servant, a Serbian, who carried a heavy hamper filled with food. When the laboratory transferred from Houston Street was in full operation at Wardenclyffe, Tesla rented the Bailey cottage near the Long Island Sound shore and there made his home for a year.
The heavy equipment, the dynamos and motors, that Tesla desired for his plant were of an unusual design not produced by manufacturers, and he encountered many vexatious delays in securing such material. He was able to carry on a wide range of high-frequency current and other experiments in his new laboratory, but the principal project, that of setting up the worldwide broadcasting station, lagged. Meanwhile, he had a number of glass blowers making tubes for use in transmitting and receiving his broadcast programs. This was a dozen years before De Forest invented the form of radio tube now in general use. The secret of Tesla’s tubes died with him.
Tesla seemed to be entirely fearless of his high-frequency currents of millions of volts. He had, nevertheless, the greatest respect for the electric current in all forms, and was extremely careful in working on his apparatus. When working on circuits that might come “alive,” he always worked with one hand in his pocket, using the other to manipulate tools. He insisted that all of his workers do likewise when working on the 60-cycle low-frequency alternating-current circuits, whether the potential was 50,000 or 110 volts. This safeguard reduced the possibility of a dangerous current finding a circuit through the arms across the body, where there was chance that it might stop the action of the heart.
In spite of the great care which he manifested in all of his experimental work, he had a narrow escape from losing his life at the Wardenclyffe plant. He was making experiments on the properties of small-diameter jets of water moving at high velocity and under very high pressures, of the order of 10,000 pounds per square inch. Such a stream could be struck by a heavy iron bar without the stream being disrupted. The impinging bar would bounce back as if it had struck another solid iron bar...a strange property for a mechanically weak substance like water. The cylinder holding the water under high pressure was a heavy one made of wrought iron. (See Viktor Schauberger on this site, to find out why water behaves this way!)
Tesla was unable to secure a wrought-iron cap for the upper surface, so he used a heavier one of cast iron, a more brittle metal. One day when he raised the pressure to a point higher than he had previously used, the cylinder exploded. The cast-iron cap broke and a large fragment shot within a few inches of his face as it went on a slanting path upward and finally crashed through the roof. The high-pressure stream of water had peculiar destructive effects on anything with which it came in contact, even tough, strong metals. Tesla never revealed the purpose or the results of these high-pressure experiments.
Tesla’s insistence on the utmost neatness in his laboratory (interior view – right) almost resulted in a tragedy through a case of thoughtlessness on the part of an assistant. Arrangements were being made for installing a heavy piece of machinery which was to be lag bolted to the thick concrete floor. Holes had been drilled in the concrete. The plan called for pouring molten lead into these holes and screwing the heavy bolts into the metal when it cooled. As soon as the holes were drilled, a young assistant starting cleaning up the debris. He not only swept up the stone chips and dust: he got a mop and thoroughly washed that area of the floor, thoughtlessly letting some of the water get into the holes. He then dried the floor. In the meantime Tesla and George Scherff, who was his financial secretary but also served in any way in which he could be helpful, were melting the lead which would hold the lag screws in the holes in the floor. Scherff took the first large ladleful of lead from the furnace and started across the laboratory to where the holes had been drilled, followed shortly by Tesla bearing another ladle.
Scherff bent down, and as he poured the hot liquid metal into one of the holes an explosion followed instantly. The molten lead was blown upward into his face in a shower of searing hot drops of liquid metal. The water which the assistant used to swab the floor had settled into the holes and, when the melted lead come in contact with it, it was changed to steam which shot the lead out of the hole like a bullet out of the barrel of a riffle. Both men were showered with drops of hot metal and dropped their ladles. Tesla, being several feet away, was only slightly injured; but Scherff was very seriously burned about the face and hands. Drops of the metal had struck his eyes and so severely burned them that it was feared for a while that his sight could not be saved. However, despite the almost unlimited possibilities for accidents in connection with the vast variety of experiments which Tesla conducted in totally unexplored fields, using high voltages, high amperages, high pressures, high velocities and high temperatures, he went through his entire career with only one accident in which he suffered injury.
In that a sharp instrument slipped, entered his palm and penetrated through the hand. The accident to Scherff was the only one in which a member of his staff was injured, with the exception of a young assistant who developed X-ray burns. He had probably been exposed to the rays from one of Tesla’s tubes which, unknown to Tesla and everyone else, had been producing them even before Roentgen announced their discovery. Tesla had given them another name and had not fully investigated their properties. This was probably the first case of X-ray burns on record.
Tesla was an indefatigable worker, and it was hard for him to understand why others were incapable of such feats of endurance as he was able to accomplish. He was willing to pay unusually high wages to workers who were willing to stick with him on protracted tasks but never demanded that anyone work beyond a reasonable day’s labor. On one occasion a piece of long-awaited equipment arrived and Tesla was anxious to get it installed and operating as quickly as possible. The electricians worked through twenty-four hours, stopping only for meals, and then for another twenty-four hours. The workers then dropped out, one by one, picking out nooks in the building in which to sleep. While they took from eight to twelve hours’ sleep, Tesla continued to work; and when they came back to the job Tesla was still going strong and worked with them through his third sleepless twenty-four-hour period. The men were then given several days off in which to rest up; but Tesla, apparently none the worse for his seventy-two hours of toil, went through his next day of experiments, accomplishing a total of eighty-four hours without sleep or rest.
The plant at Wardenclyffe was intended primarily for demonstrating the radio-broadcasting phase of his “World System”; the power-distribution station was to be built at Niagara Falls. Tesla at this time published a brochure on his “World System” which indicates the remarkable state of advancement he had projected in the wireless art, now called radio, while other experimenters were struggling to acquire familiarity with rudimentary devices. At that time, however, his promises seemed fantastic. The brochure contained the following description of his system and his objectives:
“The World System has resulted from a combination of several original discoveries made by the inventor in the course of long continued research and experimentation. It makes possible not only the instantaneous and precise wireless transmission of any kind of signals, messages or characters, to all parts of the world, but also the interconnection of the existing telegraph, telephone, and other signal stations without any change in their present equipment. By its means, for instance, a telephone subscriber here many call up any other subscriber on the Globe. An inexpensive receiver, not bigger than a watch, will enable him to listen anywhere, on land or sea, to a speech delivered, or music played in some other place, however distant.”
“These examples are cited merely to give an idea of the possibilities of this great scientific advance, which annihilates distance and makes that perfect conductor, the Earth, available for all the innumerable purposes which human ingenuity has found for a line wire. One far reaching result of this is that any device capable of being operated through one or more wires (at a distance obviously restricted) can likewise be actuated, without artificial conductors and with the same facility and accuracy, at distances to which there are no limits other than those imposed by the physical dimensions of the Globe. Thus, not only will entirely new fields for commercial exploitation be opened up by this ideal method of transmission, but the old ones vastly extended.”
While at work on his Wardenclyffe radio-broadcasting plant, Tesla was also evolving plans for establishing his world power station at Niagara Falls. So sure was he of the successful outcome of his efforts that he stated in a newspaper interview in 1903 that he would light the lamps of the coming international exposition in Paris with power wirelessly transmitted from the Falls. Circumstances, however, prevented him from making good this promise. His difficulties and his plans were outlined in a statement published in the Electrical World and Engineer, March 5, 1904: (Below)
Compliments: Gary Peterson of 21st Century Books, http://www.tfcbooks.com ; used by permission.
Edited: Frank Germano
WARDENCLYFFE STATION :
The history and design of Nikola Tesla’s wireless facility at Shoreham, Long Island;
Tesla’s Magnifying Transmitter
“The tower was destroyed two years ago but my projects are being developed and another one, improved in some features, will be constructed. . . . My project was retarded by laws of nature. The world was not prepared for it. It was too far ahead of time, but the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success.” — Nikola Tesla, 1919
Radio communications, fluorescent lighting and AC power, these are all familiar and vital components of life as we know it in the latter part of the twentieth century and all were contributions of the prolific turn-of-the-century inventor Nikola Tesla. In spite of their exceptional significance, there are additional inventions that this remarkable man left to the world with the capacity to be of an equivalent or perhaps even greater value to society. Much of Nikola Tesla’s legacy, that which can be read about, built and used, is in the form of these inventions—much but not all.
Near the North Shore Long Island community of Shoreham, New York there exists a sturdy 94 by 94 foot red brick structure that is another, no less significant reminder of this great man’s work. Its importance lays not so much in the technology that it represents or in the engineering clues that remain buried there. It is in the fact that the Wardenclyffe Power Plant / OfficeBuilding, designed by the well renowned architect Stanford White, is the last of Tesla’s own work places to remain standing anywhere in the world.
The saga of the building’s history, from its construction in 1902 alongside a 187-foot companion tower to house the various components of a prototype world broadcasting and telecommunications facility to later less glamorous uses, is a story yet to be fully told. And, there is history in the making as well. For a movement is underway which, if successful, will result in the establishment of the Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe – a permanent monument to this great creative genius and his work.
Figure 1. The Wardenclyffe facility for worldwide broadcasting and wireless telecommunications.
Just to the east of Manhattan, Nikola Tesla’s principle place of residence from 1884 until his death in 1943, is another somewhat larger body of land known as Long Island. Extending about 115 miles along the Atlantic shoreline of the United States, this 12 mile wide island is bounded by Long Island Sound to the north, and the East River, New York Bay and the Narrows to the west. It was formed due to the effect of glaciations, with its geography being defined by the deposition of two glacial moraines and associated outwash plains.
Settlement of the area started in the late 1600s and continued on through the year 1800, after being purchased from the indigenous people known as the Montauks. The occupations of the residents were mainly related to farming, a character that the area retains to this day. A cordwood industry eventually developed as well, with logs of chestnut, oak and pine being shipped by sailing vessel to heat homes and fuel brickyard kilns in nearby New York City . Around 1850 the effects of an increasing demand for fuel along with a chestnut blight combined, resulting in forest depletion. The introduction of coal as wood’s replacement occurred at the same time.
About 50 years later, having just returned to New York from a productive scientific expedition at the edge of the Colorado Rockies, Nikola Tesla was anxious to put a mass of newfound knowledge to work. His vision was focused on the development of a prototype wireless communications station and research facility, and he needed a site on which to build. Long Island was already home to more than one-and-a-quarter million people when in 1901 he cast his eyes some 60 miles eastward to the north-shore village of Woodville Landing. Only six years before the northern branch of the Long Island Railroad had opened, reducing travel time to the locality from a horse-drawn five hours to less than two.
Seeing an opportunity in land development, a western lawyer and banker by the name of James S. Warden had purchased 1400 acres in the area and started building an exclusive summer resort community known as Wardenclyffe-On-Sound.  With an opportunity for further development in mind, Warden offered Tesla a 200-acre section of this parcel lying directly to the south of the newly laid track. It was anticipated that implementation of Tesla’s system would eventually lead to the establishment of a “ Radio City” to house the thousands of employees needed for operation of the facility. The proximity to Manhattan and the fairly short travel time between the two, along with the site’s closeness to a railway line must have been attractive features and Tesla accepted the offer.
The Wardenclyffe World Wireless facility as envisioned by Tesla was to have been quite different from radio broadcasting stations, as they presently exist. While there was to be a great similarity in the apparatus employed, the method in which it was to be utilized would have been radically different. Conventional transmitters are designed so as to maximize the amount of electromagnetic radiation emitted by the antenna structure. For long-range communications such equipment must process tremendous amounts of power in order to counteract the loss in field strength (P = 1/R2) encountered as the signal radiates outward from its point of origin.
The transmitter at Wardenclyffe was configured so as to minimize the radiated power. The energy of Tesla’s steam driven Westinghouse 200 kW alternator was to be channeled instead into an underground structure consisting of iron pipes driven from a point 120 feet beneath the tower’s base.  This was to be accomplished by combining an extremely low frequency signal (ELF) along with the higher frequency current coursing between the earth and the transmitter’s elevated terminal [through the master oscillator and helical resonator]. The low frequency current in the presence of an enveloping corona-induced plasma of free charge carriers would have “pumped” the earth’s charge.  It is believed the resulting ground current and its associated wave complex would have allowed the propagation of wireless transmissions to any distance on the earth’s surface with as little as 5% loss due to electromagnetic radiation.
The terrestrial transmission line modes so excited would have supported a system with the following technical capabilities:
1. Establishment of a multi-channel global broadcasting system with programming including news, music, et cetera;
2. Interconnection of the world’s telephone and telegraph exchanges, and stock tickers;
3. Transmission of written and printed matter, and data;
4. World wide reproduction of photographic images;
5. Establishment of a universal marine navigation and location system, including a means for the synchronization of precision timepieces;
6. Establishment of secure wireless communications services.  Additional World System capabilities and related technologies include,
7. Remote control and propulsion of UAV “atmospheric satellites” in long duration flight.
8. Wireless transmission of electrical energy for propulsion of aerial and other vehicles, and industrial purposes.
9. Geophysical exploration [Waite]
10. Weather control, artificial rain; climate control
11. Macroscopic charged particle beam projection
12. Electrical projection of explosive energy
14. Electronic logic gate and digital computing allow, a) Software defined radio b) Digital world-system broadcasting and terrestrial network backbone c) Artificial intelligence
15. Interplanetary Communications providing a stable, high-capacity interplanetary network backbone supporting high-speed Internet protocols.
IV. THE WARDENCLYFFE POWER PLANT AND LABORATORY—History and Design
The design of Tesla’s World-System installation can be traced back to 1892 and his preliminary investigations at the 35 South Fifth Avenue lab. In Tesla‘s words, “The first gratifying result was obtained in the spring of the succeeding year, when I reached a tension of about 1,000,000 volts with my conical coil.” Further development took place in his Houston Street lab where he achieved potentials of 4,000,000 volts with a larger flat-spiral coil.He made observations related to selective tuning, developing techniques for spreading the transmitted RF energy in both the frequency and time domains—spread spectrum.
I n 1899 Tesla went to Colorado Springs to learn how the apparatus would be best constructed and how to control the even higher potentials that would involved in the operation of a large industrial plant such as was being contemplated. There, using a gigantic form of electrical oscillator called the magnifying transmitter, he produced what were, at the time, the greatest point-to-point discharges ever achieved by man. The potentials involved were in the order of 12,000,000 volts. The master oscillation transformer was 49 1/3-feet in diameter and 6 ½ feet high. The extra coil was 8 feet across by 8 feet high. [Antenna currents reached 800 amperes, describe intense luminosity of tower.]
Upon the conclusion of his preliminary investigations Tesla wrote George Westinghouse,
“I have just returned from Colorado , where I have been carrying on some experiments since a few months past. The success has been even greater than I anticipated, and among other things I have absolutely demonstrated the practicability of the establishment of telegraphic communication to any point on the globe by the help of the machinery I have perfected.”
Tesla’s short-term goal was to build a prototype world-system communications facility. This was intended as the first of many wireless plants that would be located near major population centers around the world. If the program had moved forward without interruption, the Long Island prototype would have been followed by additional stations, the first being built somewhere along the southern coast of England. 
By the Summer of 1902 Tesla had shifted his laboratory operations from the Houston Street Laboratory to the rural Long Island setting, and work began in earnest on development of the plant.
The building was essentially completed and octagonal wooden tower had taken form. A 200 kW Westinghouse alternator was installed to power the system, with four large oil filled transformers as the high voltage supply. Four additional steel tanks contained condensers, and another a set of regulating coils.
Designed by Tesla and Westinghouse engineers, two of these complex units were assembled. One was delivered to Wardenclyffe and the other was warehoused, presumably for future delivery to the second installation to be built across the Atlantic.
In 1903 the 187-foot tower framework was topped off with a 68-foot diameter, 55-ton terminal capacitance. A graphic rendering by artist Rex Hubbart, shows final appearance of the massive structure had it been completed
Figure 2 (non standard view of the Magnifying Transmitter – compliments, Rex Hubbart)
In order to provide the requisite ground connection Tesla excavated a 120 foot deep, 10 x 12 foot wood and steel-lined shaft directly below the tower.
Using special machines at the bottom of the shaft, individual sections of steel pipe were pushed piece by piece into the Long Islandsubsoil. This provided the electrical connection that would allow Tesla‘s apparatus, in his words, “to get a grip of the earth.”[Footnote 1.]
In July 1903 Tesla began testing the system. Judging from his letter of November 5 to J.P. Morgan he was not at all satisfied with its performance. [Tesla must have anticipated this possibility.]
. . . The old plant has never worked beyond a few hundred miles. Apart of imperfections of the apparatus design there were four defects, each of which was fatal to success. It does not seem probable that the new plant will do much better, for these faults were of a widely different nature and difficult to discover. As to the remedies, I have protected myself in applications filed 1900 – 1902, still in the office.
The “old plant” refers to the Colorado Springs Experimental Station or perhaps an initial Wardenclyffe installation bearing aresemblance to it. A fair estimate of the ‘imperfections’ can be made through a comparison with the final Wardenclyffe Plant design. For starters, theColorado Springs extra coil had a height-to-diameter ratio of 1:1 (see figure 7 below).
The Wardenclyffe extra coil illustrated in U.S. Patent, No. 1,1191,732, “Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy,” Dec. 1, 1914, shows a height-to-diameter ratio of 9.1:1.
Second, the elevated capacitance in Coloradoconsisted of a relatively small sphere mounted on top of a tall and slender metal mast.
In contrast, the Wardenclyffe elevated capacitance consisted of a large oblate spheroid mounted on top of an insulating wooden structure.
In the 1914 patent the connection from the top of the extra coil to the elevated terminal is shown as a relatively short, large diameter metal cylinder.[Footnote 2.]
Figure 3. Below Right – A scale comparison of the Colorado Springs Experimental Station and a Wardenclyffe-type installation (Figure two above to Fig three, below right).
In spite of these and some additional shortcomings, the Colorado apparatus served as an effective test bed for experimentation with various transmitter configurations. Six different arrangements were developed, and are shown in the Colorado Springs Notes on pages 190 and 191, and also a reproduction of Tesla’s original lab note on page 200. It seems that Tesla felt the arrangement illustrated in figures 5 and 6 was the most promising.
It shows up with slight variations at a number of places in the Colorado Springs Notes, most significantly on pages 191, 200, 197 and 170 (see also pages 161, 162, 174, 177 and 184). In the corresponding text on page 191 Tesla writes, “In Fig. 5. & 6. it is found best to make [the] extra coil ¾ wave length and the secondary ¼ for obvious reasons.”
In the May 29, 1901 note Tesla wrote of the Wardenclyffe Design, “The length of conductors in the free system [equivalent to the ¾ lambda extra coil in figure 5/6 CSN p. 191/200] should be lambda/4, and the length of the discharging circuit [equivalent to the ¼ lambda secondary in figure 5/6] should be ¾ lambda or n/4 lambda [“n” could be very large reflecting the wavelength of the superimposed ELF excitation. [?]] eventually, n being an uneven number.”
The initial conceptual plan for Wardenclyffe, as illustrated in figure 4, was tied in with an idea Tesla had that it might be possible to produce displacements in the earth’s charge without establishing an electrical connection to the upper atmosphere. This was related to the concept of energy transmission through one wire without return. The plan called for the installation of two 600-foot tall towers in relatively close proximity to each other. 
Alterations of the initial Wardenclyffe design led to the arrangement shown in a sketch dated May 29, 1901. An electrical oscillator or discharging circuit, consisting of a resonance transformer and an extra coil, is coupled to the tower structure through an adjustable air gap. The tower cupola is supported on electrically conducting legs, which, in turn, are attached to a substantial grounding system. The capacitance of the cupola relative to the environment, along with the inductance of the tower legs comprise a separate resonant LC circuit which Tesla designated the “free system.” Two design drawings, with variations, of the initial Wardenclyffe transmitter. Tesla calculated the legs would have to be at least 600 feet in length. A low-frequency alternator and high-voltage power supply transformer connected to a disruptive-discharge type oscillator.
The circuit incorporates a dual capacitor-inductor [LC] arrangement in the oscillatory transformer primary tank circuit along with dual secondary windings. Independent tuning the two sides of the circuit to different frequencies (n/4 lambda, n being an uneven number) would result in the development of a higher order wave complex above the resonant frequency of the extra coil. [“The transmitter was to emit a wave-complex of special characteristics. . . .” My Inventions]. In [figure 6] the straight conducting legs have been modified to a spiral form. An obvious advantage would be a reduction in the structure’s overall height above ground level. Also notice that the number of turns varies from leg to leg. This would also result in the development of a higher order wave complex by the transmitter—a form of frequency-division multiplexing.
Regarding the “four defects” of the Colorado Springs plant, one of them could have been the plan that involved coupling by corona discharge between the extra coil and the conducting hood that Tesla had installed at the lower end of the insulated metal tower (see CSN pp. 197, 334, Phot. X for example. As for the “remedies” protected in applications filed between 1900 and 1902, and “still in the office,” the only patented invention meeting these criteria is “Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy,” No. 1,119,732, issued Dec. 1, 1914. Comparing the two basic circuits the most obvious difference is the elimination of the free [oscillating] system and the plasma coupler. The entire transmitter is now comprised solely of the discharging circuit—an oscillatory transformer and extra coil—connected directly to the elevated terminal, as seen to the right in figure 3.
An unanswered question is the purpose of what appears to be a flat-spiral coil suspended within the large elevated terminal [the cupola]. In Colorado Springs Tesla specified a coil to be used in conjunction with a resonator when no ball termination was present. The additional inductance served to lower the resonant frequency of the vibrating system back to the resonant frequency with the ball present. It is conceivable this technique was adapted to achieve an overall lower frequency by using both the additional coil and the terminal capacitance. [See CSN, p. 203 for illustration of the additional coil, form #5, “coil used in series with extra coil when ball was not employed.”]
 In 1916 Tesla described the underground portion of the tower thus,
In this system that I have invented it is necessary for the machine to get a grip of the earth, otherwise it cannot shake the earth. It has to have a grip on the earth so that the whole of this globe can quiver, and to do that it is necessary to carry out a very expensive construction. I had in fact invented special machines. . . . There was a big shaft about ten by twelve feet goes down about one hundred and twenty feet and this was first covered with timber and the inside with steel and in the center of this there was a winding stairs going down and in the center of the stairs there was a big shaft again through which the current was to pass . . . And then the real expensive work was to connect that central part with the earth, and there I had special machines rigged up which would push the iron pipe, one length after another, and I pushed these iron pipes, I think sixteen of them, three hundred feet, and then the current through these pipes takes hold of the earth. Now that was a very expensive part of the work, but it does not show on the tower, but it belongs to the tower. [Ref. #2, p. 203]
 Two other seemingly applicable patents filed for within the specified time period and patented in 1900 are “Means for Increasing the Intensity of Electrical Oscillations,” No. 787,412 and “Method of Insulating Electrical Conductors,” No. 655,838, reissued as No. 11,865. Both of these inventions might have been useful for improving the Wardenclyffe plant’s performance; the first for the magnifying transmitter itself, the second for improving high-voltage power transmission between the lab building and the tower structure.
 History of Shoreham, Mary Lou Abata, 1979.
 Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony and Transmission of Power, L.I. Anderson, Sun Publishing, Denver 1992.
 “Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation,” K.L. Corum and J.F. Corum, Proceedings of the 1996 International Tesla Symposium, Colorado Springs, Colorado.
 “My Inventions,” Nikola Tesla, Electrical Experimenter, 1919. . . .
 Vojin Popovic, “Nikola Tesla the Founder of Radiocommunications,” Nikola Tesla—Life and Work of a Genius, Yugoslav Society for the Promotion of Scientific Knowledge, Belgrade , 1976.
 “Wardenclyffe, Forfeited Dream,” Leland I. Anderson, Long Island Forum, Aug., Sept., 1968.
 Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wuireless Telegraphy, Telephony and Transmission of Power, Leland I. Anderson, editor, Twenty First Century Books, 2002.
 Anderson, Leland I., Rare Notes From Tesla On Wardenclyffe, Electric Spacecraft Journal, Apr./May/June Issue 26, Sept. 14, 1998.
[ 9 ] Prodigal Genius — The Life of Nikola Tesla, John J. O’Neill, Ives Washburn, Inc., 1944.
 Anderson, Leland I., “The Silent Tower,” The Old Timer’s Bulletin, (Antique Wireless Association, Inc.) Autumn (Sept.), 1968.
[ 11 ] Nikola Tesla—Colorado Springs Notes, 1899-1900, Nikola Tesla Museum, 1987.
 Tesla — Man Out Of Time, Margaret Cheney, Prentice Hall, 1981.
 “Sale of Nicola Tesla Property Recalls Stories of Aged Inventor,” Brooklyn Eagle, April 24, 1939.
 “Radio Pioneer at Shoreham,” Thomas R. Bales, Patchogue Advance, Sept. 13, 1951.
 “RI/FS Work Plan,” Groundwater Technology, Sept. 30, 1993.
 “In Recognition,” Brookhaven Bulletin, July 12, 1976.
Tesla’s method of wireless transmission was covered by the following U.S. Patents:
No. 613,809, “Method and Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vessel or Vehicles,” Nov. 8, 1898.
No. 645,576, “System of Transmission of Electrical Energy,” Mar. 20, 1900.
Nos. 685,953, 685,954, 685,955, and 685,956, Nov. 5, 1901, on utilizing effects transmitted through natural media.
The AND logic-gate patents,
No. 723,188, “Method of Signaling,” Mar. 17, 1903.
No. 725,605, “System of Signaling,” Apr. 14, 1903.
No. 787,412, “Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Mediums,” Apr. 18, 1905.
No. 1,1191,732, “Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy,” Dec. 1, 1914.
Some of Tesla’s inventions have long been accepted as part of daily life, for example AC power, broadcasting and, more recently, high frequency lighting. And, Tesla turbo-machinery are just now beginning to see some use, especially in the industrial arena. This is not so much the case with Tesla’s more advanced concepts. The proposed “World System” is a prime example. Here is a major invention in which Tesla held total confidence regarding its performance characteristics were it to become fully operational. Was Tesla entirely correct? If so, what would be the ramifications associated with the system’s full-scale implementation? Would responsible operation have been possible or even probable at the beginning of the last century? Even now, could the system gain acceptance from society, in spite of what might be perceived as less-than-desirable characteristics, i.e., its potential as a weapon of mass destruction.
It has been said the prototype plant was intended as the first installation in a global power distribution system. Actually, it was intended to serve as the western component of a trans-Atlantic wireless telecommunications link.
It is possible that such an arrangement was experimented with at Wardenclyffe, some time between June 1901 and Nov. 1903, as progress with the tower’s construction allowed. In any case, the letter suggests the 1901 scheme was fatally flawed.
My Inventions, Chapter 5
“. . . A plant was built on Long Island with a tower 187 feet high, having a spherical terminal about 68 feet in diameter. These dimensions were adequate for the transmission of virtually any amount of energy. Originally, only from 200 to 300 K.W. were provided, but I intended to employ later several thousand horsepower. The transmitter was to emit a wave-complex of special characteristics and I had devised a unique method of telephonic control of any amount of energy.
“Morgan, who had invested in a project to capitalize on multichannel wireless message transmissions across the Atlantic, was not the least bit interested in industrial power transmission—which Tesla viewed as the ultimate goal.”
“Local residents were aroused at night by startling lightning-like flashes, but no one knew exactly what the activities were at the plant because the whole operation was shrouded in secrecy.”
“Large multi-strand cables connected the shaft termination to the periphery of the sphere.”
Read much more on this subject in the book – “Nikola Tesla; Journey To Mars: Are We Already There?!” below –
The Amazing Nikola Tesla
the complete, amazing mind of Tesla
“Things were created rather in the minds of angels, than in Nature, I.e. angels had all things clear in their minds and thoughts before they got a real existence.” Words by Augustine Blessed cited by H.P. Blavatskaya In her book “Secret doctrine”
“ The present is theirs; The future, for which I work, is mine ”- said Tesla more than seven decades ago, to journalists gathered in New York City. Inventor of alternating current polyphase engines and generators, reversible magnetic fields, radio, teleautomatics, an inventor, on whose patents the energy of the Twentieth century and beyond is based, worked alone on the explanation of cosmic processes during the decades, having a desire to combine the material and the spiritual theoretically like he did in his practical discoveries. Mentioning Nikola Tesla’s name now mainly connects one with the Tesla coil, inductive engine and the international unit symbol “t” to measure the force of a magnetic field. Many facts of his life and his extraordinary creative gift are forgotten.
Tesla was fluent in many languages: Serbian-Croatian, he also spoke seven other languages: English, Czech, Hungarian, French, German, Latin, and Italian.
Primary Education –
Elementary school: Gospic
Secondary school: Karlovac
Baccalaureate of Physics: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz)
Baccalaureate of Mathematics: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz)
Baccalaureate of Mechanical Engineering: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz)
Baccalaureate of Electrical Engineering: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz)
Graduate studies –
Physics at Charles University in Prague
Docteur Honoris Causa – For his work Tesla received numerous honorary doctoral degrees from a number of universities to include: Columbia University, Graz Polytechnic Institute,University of Zagreb, Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest, University of Belgrade, University of Brno, University of Grenoble, University of Paris, University de Poitiers, Charles University in Prague, University of Sofia, Vienna Polytechnic Institute, and Yale University
The most productive and creative periods of Tesla’s life was spent in USA. He had patented more than 300 inventions in different countries. Many of them were not put into practical use; for example, the radiant energy receiver, his wireless transmission of power (electricity), his medical inventions, his bladeless disk turbine, and many, many others. We know nothing definite about his radiant energy receiver’s principle of operation besides that of it being a transformer of energy produced by cosmic rays. In the period from 1899 until 1900, he devoted himself to the research of electromagnetic oscillations of very low frequencies in his specially built laboratory in Colorado Springs. Two years later he began to build a world relay station on Long Island near New York City (Wardenclyffe, at Shoreham, Long Island) and never finished it. This experiment was financed by American steel magnate, J.P. Morgan, Tesla’s friend, at the time. This project was closed in 1905. Tesla, up to his death, preferred to work alone, far from people’s sight. This period was not without new discoveries. Being a mature scientist, he came to fundamental conclusions, which will become a new milestone in future science. We know from history that when scientific thought finds itself at crossroads, the scientists address the past seeking support and inspiration. Let’s try to answer some important questions.
How did Nikola Tesla come to his discoveries?:
- How was Tesla able to use the influence of super-low-frequency electromagnetic waves on biological systems, especially the workings of the cerebrum; coalesce energy structures, the so called “fire balls” from an inductive field of primary and secondary electromagnetic coils; superconductivity of natural and artificial mediums; the so-called wireless transmission of energy, and so on?
- What are the main axioms of Tesla’s cosmology?
- How do they follow from his metaphysics?
- How did he apply them in his physical experiments?
- Why are theorists and empiricists of modern physics of time so interested in the reconstruction of Tesla’s missing theory of physical reality and his view on electromagnetic phenomena?
- Why didn’t Tesla formulate his scientific theory and publish it?
- Can Tesla’s sight on the ethical aspect of scientific discoveries help to ennoble modern natural science, especially physics, which is in an idea crisis now?
- What can we expect in the near future from studying Tesla’s concepts?
- Is it an overstatement to say that Tesla, in 1900 founded the possibility of a global information-oriented society in his famous project – World-wide Wireless System at Wardenclyffe?
- Whether it is actually the technical and technological basis of what we now call the “New World order”?
- Shall we consider Tesla to be a spiritual precursor of a new scientific and technological civilization named as Tesliana? The Technology of “time design” rules in Tesliana, where the time-shift or rather asynchronicity of various levels of physical processes will be the only and inexhaustible energy source.
Tesla’s unique research methods:
“Before I put a sketch on paper, the whole idea is worked out mentally. In my mind I change the construction, make improvements, and even operate the device. Without ever having drawn a sketch I can give the measurements of all parts to workmen, and when completed all these parts will fit, just as certainly as though I had made the actual drawings. It is immaterial to me whether I run my machine in my mind or test it in my shop. The inventions I have conceived in this way have always worked. In thirty years there has not been a single exception. My first electric motor, the vacuum wireless light, my turbine engine and many other devices have all been developed in exactly this way.” — Nikola Tesla
This is the basis of how Tesla worked. No drawing, no sketch; just the power of his immense intellect – his mind. Let’s return to the middle XIX century, to the little village Smilyan in Lika, which was Austrian-Hungarian province. In this village on July10, 1856 Milutin Tesla, a Serbian Orthodox priest, saw the birth of his forth child, Nikola Tesla. Tesla’s family didn’t want him to study at the Polytechnic Institute, especially his father, who (required) wanted him to be a priest. Nikola felt a deep and insatiable vocation to be an electrical engineer and he felt sick due to this disagreement. When crisis came and it became evident that Nikola might die (from illness), his father finally agreed with the desire of his son. Soon Tesla recovered as if it was a miracle and was absorbed in inventive fantasy. After strenuous mental efforts, he began to suffer from a strange phenomenon. He saw clear visions sometimes accompanied by a strong light flash. It is the ability of people who have para-psychological power –
“In my boyhood I suffered from a peculiar affliction due to the appearance of images, often accompanied by strong flashes of light, which covered the sight of real objects and interfered with my thought and actions….When a word was spoken to me the image of the object it designated would present itself vividly to my vision and sometimes I was quite unable to distinguish whether what I sow was tangible or not.” Tesla
He also described his spontaneous mind traveling:
“Then, instinctively, I commenced making mind trips beyond the limits of the small world of which I had knowledge and I saw new scenes. These were at first very blurred and indistinct, and would flit away when I tried to concentrate my attention upon them but, by and by, I succeeded in fixing them; they gained in strength and distinctness and finally assumed the concreteness of real thing. I soon discovered that my best comfort was attained if I simply went on in my vision further and further, getting new impressions all the time, and so I began to travel – of course in my mind. Every night (and sometimes during the day) when alone, I would start on my journeys, see new places, cities and countries, live there, meet people and make friendships and acquaintances and, however unbelievable, it is a fact that they were just as real and dear to me as those in actual life and not one bit less intense in their manifestations. This I did constantly until I was seventeen, when my thoughts turned seriously to invention.” from “My Inventions; Nikola Tesla’s autobiography.”
Tesla noticed that he could clearly visualize his discoveries, he didn’t need experiments, models or drawings. In such a way he developed his own methods to give material form to his creative ideas. Tesla sharply distinguished ideas, which were coming into his mind as visions, and those, which appear due to analytical mind clearance. Tesla explained:
The moment when somebody designs an imaginary device and is connected with a problem of transfer from raw idea to the practice. That is why any discovery made this way has lack of details, and usually it is inferior.
Tesla used another method, entirely. He did not hurry nor follow with an empirical check. When an idea appeared, he immediately began to elaborate on it in his imagination. He would change its design, improving it – and would “switch on” the device to begin its operation in his head. For him, it did not matter whether he tested his invention in the laboratory or in his mind. He could notice if something would prevent his invention from working properly… in the same way he could develop a perfect idea without any physical touch. Only then would he give a concrete look for this final product of his mind. All his inventions were developed by this method – with no exceptions, during twenty years…
“There is hardly any scientific discovery that can’t be foreseen mathematically, without visualization… Introduction of unfinished, crude ideas to the practice is always a waste of energy and time.”
Studying the mechanisms of his mental life, Tesla found that a number of visions “from virtual reality” always had certain connection with events of “true reality”. He had an ability to realize this causation. He was glad to understand that even his thoughts were the result of the influence of external impressions. He noted that not only thoughts, but actions, also appeared in the same way. Some time passed, and it became clear to him that he was only a kind of “automaton of cosmic forces” endowed with abilities to move, respond to irritations of the sense organs and thoughts. His Invention of teleautomatic control was a result of this conclusion many years later. He understood the laws of this control through a clear feeling and external conditioning of his own behavior.
Nikola Tesla used imagination as a psychological precursor of well-ordered disclosure made by mathematical methods. We can say nothing of this about his contemporary, inventor Thomas Edison, because having a weak knowledge in mathematics, Edison at first was guided by long and laborious experiments. In his records, Tesla often speaks about his predisposition to the mental processes. These processes corresponds to the same principles, which Nature should follow. He considered this inborn gift to be given as a “diffused pressure”, which calls a sense to make another invention, because the experiment of a previous researcher was lacking something. Here he sees not only a source of invention in general, but also some proof that the law of different realities affects the man. Briefly, Tesla considered creative imagination thresholds of a conscious discovery act.
According to Tesla, certain conclusions were born in his mind spontaneously, in the form of geometric images. Then followed the understanding of the discovery and its physical interpretation. Only then, mathematical formalization took place, followed by finding the necessary technical properties and material essential for a continuous operation of the constructed physical model. The work he understood at first as a struggle for mental clarification, i.e. elimination of secondary ideas and sensible details, which blur imaging principles and complicate the approach to the real nature of relations between fundamental geometrical elements.
According to Tesla, the principle was considered finished and ready to apply, when the connection between geometrical objects was stated. Thus, discovery appeared at the moment when correspondence of the elements and their physical manifestations was defined, so we can find a physical law, which rules in the real world, in the algorithm itself. For Tesla, an idea found its manifestation in the act of creative thinking. Only then, the operating parameters of a specific device took place, following from general understanding. The result can be a design of an inductive engine or a model of rotating magnetic field. As he told it, a method of mental improvement was polished to such great extent, making even minute corrections of the discovery in my mind, without any physical check, would assure it correct operation. It can open an illusive secret to his work, amounting to a great volume, taking into consideration all of his scientific and technical innovation; it is a remarkable fact.
Tesla also made a hypothesis on the extraordinary effect of external irritants on human thinking and memory. Referring to Rene Decart’s theory, he concluded that subjective human work and human life, as a whole, has such features as automatism, which is stipulated, by space. According to Tesla’s evidence, creativity can be the consequence of automatic operation of the brain (appearance of unknown visual ideas), that’s why he developed an additional supposition about the reversible effect of the brain’s visual centers on the retina. Here, he saw a reason for the appearance of his images, which led to discoveries. Thus, though the human brain processes information about external irritants, it can create new images and relations between the phenomena of the real world reflected in it and images of the imaginary world. And finally, it was Tesla’s opinion that thought, memory, and motion are feedback processes, that’s why we should mention that with an attempt to understand his inborn gift of invention, he also understood the role of cybernetics as a reflection of cosmic principles of material and informational organization.
Believing that the Universe is alive and people are “automates” in some extent, acting according to the Creator’s plans, Tesla made an original theory of memory. He considered that the human brain does not have the ability to remember in the way that we consider it (biochemical or rather biophysical way) and memory is only a reaction of the human brain’s recurring external irritants. It is unusual that Tesla, who had a very good memory (he spoke seven or eight languages) and had the ability for eidetic imagination, was sure that there was no human memory. It is more important that as author of a few hundred scientific discoveries, Tesla didn’t consider his creativity to be his own, and surely stated, it is only a conductor of ideas, which come from the world of ideas to the world of people and practice. All this is not contradictory if we remember that Tesla, being the son of a priest, answered the question about his religion, believing in the only God. Later Tesla himself became closer to Buddhism, he even went in for yoga, watched after nutrition, meditated, and, the last years before his death he lived as an ascetic in New York City (like an Indian guru or Orthodox saint).
At twelve, Tesla could override his visions by act of will and change them to other visions. However, as he noted, he couldn’t override the light flashes. Usually these flashes appeared in certain dangerous situations or when he was greatly excited. He wrote: “In some certain moments I noticed that all air around me was full of tongues of real flame. Intensity of these tongues grew after a number of years instead of falling and reached maximum at the age of Twenty-five. Once I had a feeling that my brain was enveloped in flames and a little Sun shines in my head”. Tesla wrote when he was 65: “These light phenomena sometimes still appear, especially when some new idea shows me unprecedented possibilities, but their intensity is relatively weak”.
Over a long period of time, Tesla tried to solve the question of death and attentively looked for any manifestations of death in real life. Tesla wrote: “Only once in my present existing I experienced something that looked like supernatural. It happened during my mother’s death. I was ill and exhausted with fever, and was lying in the bed. Suddenly I thought that if my mother dies far from me, she possibly will give a sign. Two or three months later I was in London with my now the late friend, English scientist sir William Crookes, where there was a discussion about spiritism. I was impressed by his case and remembered his work on “radiant matter”, which I read when I was a student. Due to this work, I understood my vocation to be an electrician. I thought that prerequisites for looking “beyond” were favorable since my mother was a woman with extraordinary intuition. All night every fiber of my brain was strained in expectation, but nothing happened until morning, and only when I felt asleep or may be began to nod, I saw a cloud, which carried cherubic figures of divine beauty. One of them looked on me with love, and little by little I recognized in it my mother. The ghost was flying along the room slowly, and finally disappeared. I abruptly woke up with the sound of indescribable pleasant voices. In this moment a confidence, which cannot be described by any words, came over me: I knew that my mother died. And it was true”.
The same day Tesla sent a letter to Crookes under the influence of this vision, and, while still being ill. These two scientists were in correspondence for many years, but Tesla’s letters to Crookes disappeared together with Crookes’s archives, in 1918. Crookes’s huge scientific material contains numerous records of spiritistic seances, held in a strictly scientific and experimental nature, and gives clue to many hundreds of pictures with materialized ghosts from different historical epochs. The Tesla museum in Belgrade keeps Crookes’s letter to Tesla of 1893, where Crookes thanked Tesla for a special electromagnetic spiral coil Tesla sent to him. This spiral coil created a field, which made the contours of ghosts clearer and at the same time it had good effects on the medium’s condition, making an experiment easier.
At the same time when Crookes began his scientific study of spiritistic phenomena in London, Mendeleev began to do the same in Saint Petersburg in 70-s of XIX century. A committee of specialists formed in Saint Petersburg and after a short time, about ten séances later concluded that it is just a superstition. English and Russian science is subdivided on the conclusions, or secrets, calling them “factitious” (including Tesla’s physics of ether).
Tesla as a physicist
In the theoretical and experimental physics of XXth century, we can mark three different styles of thinking. Quantum mechanics, relativism (near-light speeds) and traditionalism, to which Tesla belonged (although he is not recognized as such). Tesla tried to find truth, i.e. the real nature of time, space and especially – the essence of motion. Before we go into Tesla’s metaphysics, namely into the world of the fundamental physics processes, let’s try to pinpoint the place, which Tesla ranked in the world of modern scientific systems.
Planks Constant (uncertainty of relations) by Heisenberg, Pauli Principal, and Wave Function, by Shredinger, were the main theoretical instruments of quantum and mechanical approaches to the cosmic phenomena during Tesla’s time. The main goal of quantum mechanics, to discover fundamental or elementary particles of matter, is still not realized to this day. In spite of the great success in studying the process of chain reactions, physics of atomic nucleus, processes of formation of nuclei of heavy elements from nuclei of light elements, etc., many things are still mysterious and they are beyond technical control. We can make a conclusion that the productive basis for the notions of quantum-mechanical physics are exhausted. It becomes evident that we should research such categories as time and space again, at a deeper level of realization, at an ontological level, to determine the true nature of physical processes. The Theory Of Relativity by Albert Einstein, published in 1905 in the German magazine “Annalen der Physik” marked the second milestone in theoretical physics and used the four-dimensional space-time continuum by Minkovsky, as a model of physical reality.
The third method to understanding physical reality relating to Tesla’s ideas is to start from works by M. Faraday and D. Arago from one hand, and L. Galvani and A. Volta from the other hand. Tesla created his own original theory of the world on the basis of the theory of acoustic resonators by Helmoholz and modified ether model by lord Kelvin. This theory gave outstanding results in his experiments. The initial axiom of his theory was that universal energy of one physical system is based on the laws of resonance of vibrations, on the coincidence of oscillations of a system’s parts. He considered that the Theory Of Ether cannot be excluded from physics, because matter and space cannot at all be completely and strictly separated.
Notes by Alexander V. Frolov: You can find this simple and important aspect in a letter of M. Faraday to R. Tailor. It is Faraday’s opinion about the nature of matter. In his letter to Richard Tailor of June 25, 1844, M. Faraday wrote: “So, matter anywhere is continuous… it is not necessary to assume the difference between atoms of matter and some intermediate space. The forces around centers provide these centers with properties of matter…” M. Faraday considered this aspect to make a conclusion of the nature of electric conductivity and insulation. However, his point of view can be developed in gravitational aspects, also. Atoms, and the space around an atom is the same matter in different states and the difference is in the opposite directions of the time flow for “inner cosmos” of matter and “spatial cosmos” between atoms.
It was Tesla’s opinion that the electrified state is a fluid-state, based on the substance having the properties of perception and elements of consciousness. In mathematics, Tesla was follower of the realistic approach, holding the idea that properties of mathematical and physical objects directly correspond. In experiments, to solve problems, Greek mathematician Archimedes, served as an example to him. Archimedes stated that “time should be excluded from physics” as an excess phenomenon. It should be noted that even in XIX century scientists H. Hertz and D’Alamber tried to create theoretical physics without notion of force, but this attempt failed. Russian scientist N.A. Kozyrev followed, but his theory didn’t achieve the level of practical application. The problem of relations between force and time in physics is still unsettled.
Tesla’s experiments mainly consisted in ascertaining the joint properties of physical systems, and how they may be brought into resonance. Evidence suggests his complex electromagnetic oscillator, Wardenclyffe Tower (built at Long Island near New York in 1901-1905) was solely based on resonance. He could make simultaneous vibrations in the ionosphere and the globe by means of this tower. In mathematics as well as in physics, Tesla was a follower of strict determinism. He held mathematics sacred, but also considered that physical processes could be described further, not just by mathematical methods, alone. It was Tesla’s opinion that control should be made by foresight; just as foresight provides control. Such a position is radically different from the theory of relativity. According to this theory, objective (immediate) cognition is impossible and reality is recognized by mathematical calculation.
Tesla’s and Einstein’s view on the problem of physical reality are fundamentally different. According to Einstein, human experience is relative, fictitious and doesn’t correspond to true physical reality. For Tesla, physical reality is universal and penetrates all levels of cosmic existence, i.e. no body in any way can avoid certain cognition of the truth. According to Einstein, Ether is not a real category, but exists as a result of fallacious scientific opinions. For Tesla, Ether is a joint, undifferentiated field, which consists of time, space, energy, and the formation of matter and is a result of the resonant processes IN Ether.
According to Einstein, Time is only a rank phenomena; it is not a substantial physical entity nor category and it is registered only by means of measurements with reference to every system. For Tesla, Time is a real algorithm of materialized Mathematics. Matter is created from Ether due to time-resonance of physical systems, and returns to Ether. According to Einstein, maximum speed is achieved in a Vacuum; the speed of light equal to 300 000 km/sec. For Tesla, the speed of electromagnetic waves was not limited, and experiments and calculations were made and showed that the transfer of waves and energy at any distance were possible in principle and the speed of mechanical and electrical waves penetrating the Earth, highly exceeds the speed of light in a vacuum!
Speaking to his friends, Tesla often refuted some of Einstein’s statements, especially those, which were related with the curvature of space. He considered that it breaks the law of action and counteraction and if the roundness of space is formed due to the huge gravitational fields, than it should become straight due to the counteraction. Einstein was a pure theorist and Tesla was mainly an experimenter. There exists no information about contacts and talks between these two scientists. Nevertheless, Einstein congratulated Tesla at his 75 anniversary. He underlined Tesla’s important merit in science, his multiphase system of generators and alternating current motors, which is to all appearances one of his least important discoveries. Tesla believed: “We shall have no need to transmit power at all. Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe… Throughout space there is energy…”
Tesla’s views on new world order
There is no doubt that Tesla had a great feeling of uniformity of terrestrial nature and cosmic processes. He brought the essence of his “World system” announced in 1900, to 12 positions, which reflect the very essence of technical and technological network of modern world telecommunications. This system is also a technological basis to establish a global informational society. Tendencies of this society to the universal unification manifests in many things.
Tesla’s “World order” was constructed starting from principles of his own inventions. Let’s enumerate some of them. These are:
- Tesla’s Transformer Motors, i.e. device for creation of electro-vibrations with specific properties;
- Step-up Transformer – specially designed to excite the Earth (this device with its electrical transmission is analogous to a telescope in astronomy).
- Tesla’s Wireless System – including certain devices, now considered to be an untouched method to transmit electrical current without wires.
- Device For Individualization Of A Signal, which in comparison with a primitive method to match signal means the same as advanced language in comparison with inarticulate mumbling. Due to this device, it is possible to transmit secret signals both in passive and in active form, because they do not jam other transmissions and cannot be jammed by them. Any transmission is unique in its rhythm and has individual features; actually, it is an unlimited quantity of stations and instruments, which can act on one or two frequencies and at the same time they would not cause any mutual jamming.
- Wave Processes In Earth’s Ionosphere; in popular explanation, this discovery means that the Earth’s field reacts on electrical vibrations of a given frequency in the same way as a tuning fork resonates with a certain length of a soundwave. These electrical vibrations can have a strong influence on the Earth’s magnetic field. Such resonant effects can be used by different ways to change the universal energy system.
Tesla defined the goals of “Worldwide system” in such a way that it becomes clear: Establishment of a dense communicational network of all kinds and levels should serve to humanize scientific technology. In this sense, in the very beginning of XXth century he was a prophet of the XXI century, since only now have real metaphysical problems began to penetrate theoretical physics, together with the origin of the Universe, time and space. Therefore, even in 1900 Tesla considered that the following things would be necessary: (they are already realized)
- Establishment of connection between existing telegraph stations and centers all over the world;
- Organizing of secret state telegraph service without the possibility of jamming (it was not realized due to the fact that inventions by Marconi were used instead of Tesla’s patents on radio transmission. Marconi’s inventions required a separate frequency for every synchronous transmission);
- Establishment of connection between existing telephone centers and stations on the Earth;
- United diffusion of common gazette news by means of telegraph and telephone;
- Organizing of service with principles of “Worldwide system” to transmit private information (it was realized by the worldwide computer web, the Internet);
- Establishment of interconnection of all telegraph systems in the world;
- Uniform timing clock, which marks seconds with an astronomic accuracy;
- Transmission of signs, words, sounds and so on, as well as typewritten and hand-written texts (it is an exact description of telex);
- Creation of service to record music;
- Organizing of worldwide service for needs of mercantile marine, which should help in navigation, in compass-less voyages. It will help to determine location and speed, to prevent collisions and accidents and so on;
- Introduction of worldwide printing system; Reproduction of photos and all kinds of drawings or hand-written texts to send them over the world.
Though development of modern science and technology mainly confirmed Tesla’s oracular ideas, it didn’t match with them in the fundamental sense, namely – forethought ideas Tesla wanted to realize by means of transmission through the Earth, but not from surrounding orbits. Due to the same reasons, which made him stand up against using atomic energy, Tesla considered that any infringement of cosmic space, or the magnetic field of the Earth, was an infringement of harmony inherent to natural laws. In addition, it is a consequence of negative influences of people’s free will, which becomes destructive in the absence of ethical components in science. Free will can be creative only with kindness, which accompanies the higher understanding and conscious selection of positive intentions. He considered that humankind living on the Earth should understand all kinds of natural alliances with the planet – otherwise people will be deprived of it.
In 1892-3 in London, Tesla read his famous lecture to the Royal Scientific Society of Great Britain. Together with the above-mentioned experiments he demonstrated many others, for example, lighting of lamps by wireless transmission of energy. Really, he only placed a vacuum-filled neon tube near the field of one of his transformers and the lamp illuminated. Due to these wonderful lectures (“Light and other high frequency phenomena”), Tesla gained a good reputation and acquired many friends, among them, scientists, William Crookes, Sir Oliver Lodge and J.J. Thompson – lord Kelvin.
When Tesla returned to USA in 1893, he was absorbed in the problems of radio techniques, telecontrol, and wireless transmission of energy over long distances without loss. He made successful experiments with direct electromagnetic fields of the Earth and wireless transmission of energy at Colorado Springs. Though his journal of this period of work was kept safe and was published, he didn’t advertise his most important scientific results. However, all achievements brought him to the idea of universal system of wireless transmission of energy and information. Planetary transmission should be based on such extraordinary inventions as Tesla’s resonance transformer (without an iron core) and Tesla’s Magnifying transformer. It was a particular transformer made for exciting the Earth. By means of this transformer he made very powerful electromagnetic discharges at Colorado Springs. This discharge exceeded atmospheric lighting and Tesla got electricity, which made two hundred lamps placed miles away white hot. For Tesla, it was an irrefutable proof that his concept of wireless transmission of energy (action in distance) was true.
After (the) experiments at Colorado Springs in June 1900, he returned to New York where he prepared the first universal system of wireless transmission, Wardenclyffe Tower, which he successfully tested three years later. Technical specifications of Tesla’s transmitting station are still unknown, and we cannot state with certainty, what its real destination was… After the (unusual) night of July15, 1903 when he fired (shot lightning bolts from the tower) the sky not only above New York but above all the vast area of the eastern Atlantic Ocean… in 1905 Tesla suddenly left his laboratory without a clear reason and left all things untouched. As we know, he never crossed the threshold of Wardenclyffe, never visited it, again. It was very strange, he didn’t take any calculation, drawing, document, nor paper. Lost in time are suppositions that Tesla was the man who caused a strong and strange (by its consequences) explosion in Siberia in the region of Podkamennaya Tunguska in 1908! It was considered that this explosion was caused by a meteorite, but there has still not been found the faintest fragment of it. It is also true that Wardenclyffe Tower was a success in a technical sense and Tesla passed energy through the earth and could accumulate and discharge simultaneously a huge quantity of energy at any place of the planet. It fully matched the results of his work of many years standing on studying of Earth’s properties as a medium for propagation of electromagnetic waves.
Tesla didn’t give us his own theory of physics, but with numerous experiments, he created a basis for a new, resonant understanding of electromagnetism. He considered that the world is a uniform, continuous, electromagnetic medium and matter is one of the manifestation of organized electromagnetic oscillations described by a mathematical algorithm. He considered that resonance is the most general natural law, which eliminates time and distance, and that all relations between phenomena are established only by mean of various simple and complex resonances, i.e. coordinated vibrations of physical systems, which have an electromagnetic nature.
Finally, instead of Newton’s integrals, Leibniz’s differentials and Maxwell’s theory lying in his calculations, Tesla used simple the mathematics of Ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes, first making an analogy between mechanics and electromagnetism. It is not possible to fully evaluate the significance of such method of thinking, which directly points out the necessity of full physical interpretation of elementary mathematical notions.
Obviously, the study of Tesla’s heritage is not related only with history of physics. We shouldn’t look for technological aspects; its essence is in miraculous human creativity in science. Tesla’s scientific ways need understanding and following. We need analysis of Tesla’s evidence relating with creativity lying in the base of new physical and technical processes discovered by him. It leads to opening a new way of cognition. It is important to understand the original scientific and research methods of Tesla and non-developed cosmic principles (relation), which are realized, with the world of ideas.
Tesla could create visual images competitive with images perceived by the eyes. He changed the usual direction of nervous impulses in the opposite direction, from brain to retina, eliminated external images and substituted it with eidetic one. Tesla sent his impulses from “inside”. He called it his mental laboratory. In addition, it was his main method of experimenting. He had an ability to transfer mathematical, abstract notions into visible images, give them geometrical interpretation, and than transfer them into a form that could be physically realized, and form working models for realization of each device. He “made corrections” and adjusted a device for operation in his mind. Later, when this device was made, of wire or another material, it always worked. As Tesla said, there was not a case when such invention didn’t correspond to nature, i.e. didn’t work as a physical prototype. His method was unique in comparison with other scientific prodigies, for example, Michael Faraday, or Albert Einstein. Tesla, who felt a kinesthetic premonition in the moment of discovery (it was pressure and motion in peritoneum region), had some kind of mental stress in the moment when an idea appeared. Dmitry Mendeleev dreamed of the periodic table in three dimensions colored with bright almost fiery red colors like it is in all prophetic dreams. However, this is very rare, with few people and only at certain moments. Tesla was in this condition all his life, and had trained during many decades to maintain his spiritual and creative activity.
Tesla was a man, whose main philosophy and axiomatic didn’t belong to the modern world. We can attribute him to the epoch before Socrates, from ancient philosophy. It was not an accident that he was born on Balkan Peninsula. Ancient civilization appeared in the southern part of this peninsula. Probably, the reason is a different geomagnetic informational field, or an algorithm, which is general to the evolution of neural structures of the brain, and possibly and explanation to the creative and brilliant minds of Pythagoras, Plato, Zenon and Tesla.
Tesla’s physics requires a quite different understanding of mathematics, in some extent it is sacral in the spirit of Pythagoras. Pythagoras considered that numbers and subjects are interrelated. They correspond to each other in property due to informational and mathematical aspects of matter existing as one of the manifestations of the Divine Logos. Attentive researchers can immediately notice that there are no infinitesimal or differentials in Tesla’s works. Tesla knew James Maxwell, creator of the theoretical electromagnetism. He told (Maxwell) that his elegant differential equations are as poetry. One could find Maxwell’s works in Tesla’s library; these works were published when Tesla was twenty and he was a student in Graatz. There is no reason which allows to explain why Tesla didn’t use them except one:
Tesla discovered a more simple and more effective way and more felicitous physical interpretation of mathematical notions. By means of these notions, he foretold the course and results of his experiment. It is evident that he was a man of such strength and astuteness that he could keep away from conclusions of science, its systems, notions and mathematical apparatus, which were far from perfection. It is not accidental that Tesla didn’t publicize his diploma. It was an indication of his spiritual independence for him, but not idleness or revolt as it can be some times.
His method of work could turn him to the absolutely different direction. It proved that he could control the essence of his psychic visions and other conscious or unconscious manifestations that were the basis of his creation. In the moment when he felt effects of impulses coming from outside, he could override them, control and analyze. He could do impossible things. By means of exercises, which he developed himself, he got up to the level of a man who does not depend on impulses provided by the external world, but relies on his own inner psychic states. This essence of his genius was that things understood by him and that appeared in his subconscious under the influence of an external field, was nothing but a picture of cosmic processes or the same natural laws. Because of it, he was distinctly different from other people. Regarding the rotation of a magnetic field, with which the rotor of an engine began to rotate under the influence and changes taking place in the external field, Tesla said, “Now I know how the Cosmos works”.
This is the source of Tesla’s theory on people as “automates of cosmic forces.” If we add Tesla’s practical discovered axiom, that the energy of a system is derived from its environment, than we will find the reason for his conviction that the entire Cosmos acts on the principle of vibration and resonance. Finally, if we agree with the fact that all energy of a system appears under the impact of external induction, than it will be easy to fancy Tesla’s cosmological model as a series of circuits of magnetic fields, which rotate concentrically. The Galaxy rotates, the Solar System rotates around the center of the Galaxy, the Earth rotates around the Sun, and molecules, atoms and electrons rotate … All this is nothing but a range of rotating magnetic fields, which can be described by only one law, the same law that was responsible for starting Tesla’s inductive motor.
An open question is about Tesla’s real understanding of time and space categories. We can say with certainty that his research of how low frequency electromagnetic waves are transmitted through the Earth, Tesla didn’t face the problem of conjugation of force and space, as, for example, the General Theory Of Relativity. This theory has some complexities in its physical explanation of differential equations, which describe the properties of curved space under the influence of gravitational forces of differening power. According to this theory, the constantly increasing attractive force can influence time itself, returning events back and violating the principle of causality.
Rene Decart, in creation of his coordinate system, used the same geometrical notion to picture abscissa and ordinate. They are two straight lines – interminable in their lengths, which he interpreted as time and space, as if there is no difference between them. Is it possible? It is hardly possible! You know, space and time are different physical categories and we don’t currently understood their nature. Besides, abscissa and ordinate are divided by an angle, which does not have a special physical interpretation. That’s why picturing physical phenomena in so geometrical a way, we risk not taking into consideration the criteria of reality in checking mathematical hypotheses.
There is no doubt that Tesla, by means of his physical research, discovered a fundamental physical law, which is not clear yet, and applied it so easily and with such astuteness, that a dilettante as well as a specialist could similarly understand that he spoke about exact knowledge. But, it is hard to imagine what these mathematical operations of division and multiplication, natural algorithm or square root, taken separately, which are significant in Tesla’s experimental works, actually WERE. Physical explanations of mathematical methods, especially univocal, is situated on the boundary, from where we can see the field of transcendental mathematics. However, it is evident that if all physical reality can be reduced to the mutual relation of electromagnetic fields, then this mathematics is a theory, which can express the essence of these connections most effectively.
If electromagnetic oscillations correspond to the (mental plan) discovery made by Tesla at Colorado Springs (and is still proved experimentally now), then it means that this mental plan itself should have the same nature and follow the laws of resonance. A conclusion arises that numbers are some “programs” of organization. Tesla’s research, as it were, proved the Verity Of Cognition theory, by Plato. In his theory, Plato stated that mathematics is a link between rhe world of ideas and the world of material phenomena. To be more precise, mathematical algorithms and mathematical logic is properly a method to realize ideas. Finally, all old innermost legends teach that matter is only a concentrated light, and it is Tesla’s all-penetrating cosmic substance, Luminoferous Ether.
warships as time machines?
There is a story, several books and two movies, describing an event, in 1943, when the American Navy made an unusual experiment to make one of its warships invisible. It was necessary to make the ship create a strong field around itself using powerful magnetic generators. This field should be able to change the direction of light beams as well as to grade the radiation from radar sets and thereby hide its location. It took place as recently as six months after Tesla’s death (coinciding with the disappearance of important scientific documents and apparatuses from his room). The event took place in Philadelphia’s seaport. When the generators were engaged, something unexpected happened. The whole range of strong electromagnetic fields changed local time-space coordinates and the “Eldridge DE-173” cruiser disappeared for some time. Then the cruiser appeared for few seconds in another place, i.e. in one of the biggest sea bases at Norfolk, VA, in the port at south-east Virginia’s Atlantic coast, which is 350 km far from Philadelphia! The strangest things happened to the crew. One half of the sailors disappeared forever, some of them went crazy or had an ability to disappear and appear again by their own will. Part of the crew that survived, stated that they “have changed the world” and saw or even spoke to non-earthy beings. A thick greenish fog preceded the disappearance of the ship. Three ships took part in this experiment. The above mentioned cruiser was in the middle, the shell of other two ships served as a mirror.
Actually, the case in point is open “lasers”, which do not need vacuum. Beams of these lasers can be transferred at any distance and in any medium. Tesla produced such lasers in his New York laboratory even in the XIXth century. He illuminated the room without any lamps, just calling on the luminescence of air.
Let’s return to the significance of Tesla’s experiments in Colorado Springs in 1899-1900 and see, what are the real results of his work there? When making experiments with ultra low and ultra high frequencies of electromagnetic waves, he obviously was successful in determining the frequency and type of modulations (numerous articles are devoted to it, but these articles are lacking of theory and contain inexact suppositions). Most likely, he could create a field using ultra high frequency. This field corresponded to resonance frequencies of disincarnate souls (souls which have no connection with the body) and thus he became proficient in visualization techniques of the so-called “astral level of being” for biological organisms. Calculations in Tesla’s records could seem to be insignificant for modern specialist since they are very simple and can be understood without additional explanations. Only the mind, which has similar perceptive ability, can understand them.
the secret of Tesla’s “fireballs”
Tesla could reproduce complex energy structures in laboratory conditions. He called them “fireballs”. Russian academician Peter Leonidovich Kapiza also studied them, but he couldn’t reproduce them in dirigible kind without Tesla’s resonant transformer. Nowadays physicists (Corum brothers in America) reproduce some of Tesla’s experiments with certain success. They could create small “fireballs,” standing and only three millimeters in diameter. Tesla produced “ball lightning” (fireballs) the size of a football, kept them in hands, put them in a box and covered it with a lid, then took them from the box, and held them in his hands again!!! These fireballs, or “ball lightning” were almost stable structures, which could be kept for minutes. Certainly, Tesla knew much more about this phenomenon than modern science; he knew the secret of cold plasma fusion in free space.
Thus, Tesla penetrated the field, which was unexplored before, i.e. time-engineering technologies. He also emphasized that his electromagnetic waves were different from Hertz’s waves; i.e. the length of a wave transmitted is equal to the distance on which this wave is transmitted. In other words, it is equal to the distance between the sending object and the receiving object. Hertz measures and space measures are changing in opposite directions: one Hertz is taken as corresponding to the wave length of approximately 300 000 km, 2 Hz – 150 000 km, 3 Hz – 100 000 km etc., which means that real length in space is decreasing with number of Hertz, which are increasing – That is why Tesla did not count in Hz-s (technically, one meter of wire gives one Hz, two meters of wire two Hz and so on. Obviously, Hz’s measures are not adjusted to the technical properties of electromagnetic tools).
Notes from Alexander V. Frolov: In 1932 N. Tesla wrote: “I have showed that universal medium is a gaseous body. Only longitudinal impulses can propagate to this body. They create variable compression and decompression like those, which are created by the sound waves in air. Thus, the wireless transmitter does not create Hertz’s waves, which are a myth, but it creates the sound waves in Ether. The behavior of these waves looks like the behavior of sound waves in air, excluding the fact that the huge elasticity and very small density of this medium makes their speed equal to the speed of light.”). Besides, there were not only circles of oscillations (which took part in the transference) but in resonance, as the entire system was also in resonance with natural electromagnetic waves of the corridor of their passing. It meant that an oscillator starting to transmit, almost intercepted Ether in the space between transmitter and receiver and there it created a distinctive field of standing waves. Thus, a waveguide formed at first, which couldn’t transfer energy on its own. Then Tesla turned on a low-frequency field and transmitted waves, which were the lower harmonic components of the main field carrier, in the ratio of 1:4. In such a way he could transmit energy at the desired distance and make strong continuous electromagnetic discharges in certain zones while creating the wall from iono-plasma. Nothing could make its way through such an energy wall without decay on a molecular or atomic level!
Tesla as a clairvoyant
It is evident that Tesla knew the phenomenon that we call parapsychology. As told above, the method Tesla used to make his discoveries work in the laboratory has no analogues in all the history of science. There are more that 150,000 documents in the Nikola Tesla museum in Belgrade, but he didn’t leave any description of his scientific method, which is comparable only with states experienced by yogis or with things known by saints. Now few people consider Tesla to be a philosopher or a spiritual man. They do think he was a man who inspired physics, technology and science. Finally, he founded a basis of a new millennium civilization with all his life’s work. Though now his influence on the modern tendencies in science is minimal, his role heeds overestimation. Only the future will give a real explanation of Tesla as a phenomenon, because he went far ahead and he stands higher than the methods accepted currently.
A well-known Indian philosopher Vivekananda, one of the members of Ramakrishna mission, who was sent to the West to find out a possibility to join all existing religions, visited Tesla in his New York laboratory in 1906 and immediately sent a letter to his Indian colleague Alasingh. He rapturously described his meeting with Tesla: “This man is different from other western people. He showed his experiments with electricity. His attitude to electricity looks like an attitude to a living being. He speaks with it and gives orders to it. I speak about the highest degree of spiritual person. It is no doubt that he has a spirituality of the highest level and can call all our gods. In his electrical multicolored lights, I saw all our gods: Vishnu, Shiva… and I felt the presence of Brahma himself”.
physics of time according to Tesla
Resonance is simultaneity, and if we change the periods of oscillations of electrical contour, then geometrical pictures of magnetic field distribution will change and the generator is set in motion only under the influence of temporary factor. Motion is a result of asynchronism. It proves the fact that it is possible to obtain the change in speed of an engine and thereby its mass without an additional impulse, i.e. without an additional force. Tesla’s reversible magnetic field is proof of this fact, isn’t it?
Tesla wrote from Colorado Springs to his New York friend Johnson that he found a thought in a “scribble” of high-frequency electromagnetic discharge and soon Johnson would be able to read his poetry personally to Homer, whereas Tesla would discuss his discoveries with Archimedes. In the same way, we can find a detailed description of “green” electromagnetic waves in his research journal. These waves looked like a fog, which appeared when the warship in Philadelphia disappeared. When Tesla returned to Colorado Springs, he told journalists that he made a connection with extraterrestrial civilizations. Few people regarded this claim seriously, however, there is evidence that Tesla continued his research on “parallel worlds” alone and silently without publishing the results. To all appearances, he made a device to tune the electromagnetic oscillations of his own brain, in other words, to control his mental activity. Thus, he could communicate with realities displaced in time (parallel worlds) without any problems.
This research open a new page for modern science. It shows a possibility to merge material and spiritual aspects in human consciousness (matter and spirit in nature are already merged). Tesla had an ability to develop both directions of uniform science. He studied the physical basis of mind and the mental basis of physics with the same success. He came to the general conclusion that matter consists of organized parts, which are manifestations of Ether in its excited state. One of these manifestations is electromagnetic oscillation. That’s why resonance is generally natural law and it’s of time nature, too. A connection between phenomena is provided by resonance of a different kind. Electromagnetism is the basis for these resonances. Needless to say that on one hand, if physical reality can be reduced to the interrelation of electromagnetic fields, then mathematics is a theoretical expression for these relations. On the other hand, if electromagnetic oscillations interact with the mental plan, which has the same nature, then numbers are some reflections of the organizational structure of electromagnetic fields.
I personally believe that mathematical and physical truth, or rather geometrical and arithmetical phenomena, should join and become the basis of uniform Cosmology; we should take into consideration that now we are staying on the threshold of this Cosmology. Somebody calls it “New science” but “Uniform science” is more appropriate term, because uniform laws make the basis of our Cosmos. In fact, Uniform Science is the Science of Time. Tesla’s electromagnetic theory was an apt illustration of unification of material and spiritual origins of world organization. Possibly, he could leave us a religion but he didn’t want to do it. He knew that God in science needs conscientious followers.
“Mysterious pilgrim” by Mark Twain
Famous writer/author Samuel Clemens (under the pseudonym Mark Twain) often visited Tesla’s laboratory at night. Tesla was very close to him and after Twain’s death he spoke about him as if he were alive. The writer Mark Twain died in 1910, and his enigmatic novel “Mysterious pilgrim” was published six years later.
In this novel, he told about an angel who left the heavens and came to Earth to a small Austrian village. There he met a group of boys and told them the secrets of the universe. If we recognize the little Austrian village as Smilyany and the figure of the Angel as Tesla, then an explanation of a very strange theory on human destiny and cosmology will appear. This theory expressed in this short story made it different from other stories of this writer (Mark Twain). The Angel tells about the source of all people’s troubles and misfortunes. It all comes from misunderstanding the true sense of each minuscule events. Each of these events defines the future and links the next series of events.
As he considered it, people’s free will is an illusion, since all is predetermined and will come to a predictable result. That’s why the given human individual’s psychosomatic structure has a limited number of possible destinies (ranks of events) and a man can switch back and forth due to the will of higher beings. For example, Angel takes part in the event, when a woman closes or opens a window, which was predetermined for her to do. In addition, the destiny of this woman will go another way depending on her specific action, and will call a new succession of events. This entirely coincides with Tesla’s idea of a man as an “automaton of cosmic forces” and it is brought out clearly by simple dramaturgic tools used by Marc Twain. Finally, before Angel left his friends, he let them in on the last magic secret, which would be terrible for them to know, i.e. secret of Non-Existence. He said that all is only a thought. There is nothing existent…. “I am only a thought, a lonely thought, which travels along the empty space of the Universe”.
mystery of Wardenclyffe tower
Let’s visit Tesla’s laboratory in Colorado Springs again, where Tesla made his experiments using electromagnetic fields of high frequency. He studied the operation of the human brain on himself. He wrote to his friend Johnson about some intelligent properties of electromagnetic fields. Biophysical principles of neurology were born. Just after this, in 1901, construction on Long Island began – Wardenclyffe Tower; the Magnifying Transmitter. The matter concerns a complex transmitter of electromagnetic waves. Tesla applied all his knowledge to design it: Teleautomatic Control, Hertz’s Wireless Wave Transmission, unique Ether Theory (according to which any natural element of Mendeleev’s system has its own gravitational acceleration as well as its own techniques to control the speed of time courses). A new physics was born.
What new concept could be obtained by experimenting with resonant concentrated magnetic and electromagnetic fields? Let’s return for a moment to a mystic Monard and his picture of the cosmos. Speaking about vibrations, he underlines the present; there are different nations, races and tribes on the planet, but we would never meet anyone who could live without music and dancing. 2500 years ago, Pythagoras said to his progeny that stone is frozen music. Every particle of the physical Universe has a certain property, which is pitch and overtones of its separate frequencies, i.e. its melody . (harmonic and sub-harmonic frequencies).
The natural influence of music on a man is the same as the nature of its influence on the world events, because vibration is the basis of all. The frequency of vibrations of subatomic particles is very high and waves in the center of subatomic nucleus move even quicker. Vibrations of all radiant energy (radio waves, heat, light, X-waves and so on) could be regulated. The Electromagnetic Spectrum contains more than 80 known octaves and visual light is only a part of this spectrum. Electromagnetic waves, just as acoustic waves in music, have their own harmonious high-pitched tones and there is some kind of octave principle, i.e. doubling of frequency. The common laws of music and harmony, applied to electromagnetism, give splendid results. That’s why Nikola Tesla used the works of Herman Helmholz to tune (sound in) his electrical resonators.
Johan Kepler, an astronomer, who lived in XVIIth century, believed that every planet of the Solar System is alive and there is a guardian angel on every planet, which listens to its music. Planets “play music” on their circumsolar orbits. A particular combination of sounds, which we call music, is an expression of the relation between things, in other words, their likeness and their differences. It is also a principle of appearance and disappearance of the phenomena as well, which shows how new and younger systems form from coordinated harmonious systems. The inner structure of music is the same as the structure of all the rest.
In 1665, a Dutch scientist, Christian Huyigense, noticed that the pendulums of two clocks hanging on the wall near each other start to move in rhythm. It is a universal phenomenon. When two or more oscillators begin to pulse with sufficiently small differences in time (with small shifts in phase) their oscillations come into coincidence, spontaneously. They behave according to the principle of minimum energy since every separate pendulum requires less quantity of energy with synchronous pulsation than in the case of arrhythmia. This coordination is everywhere, but we rarely notice.
We can say that all animate things are oscillators, which pulse and change their rhythms. Even the simplest unicellular organism is in complex oscillatory state. All motions on subatomic, atomic, molecular, sub-cellular and cellular levels are coordinated. In such an organism like a human being, it is very difficult and even impossible to determine corresponding parameters. Our inner rhythms are closely interconnected and they are coordinated with our external world. The physics acting on a man, on his rarified plane (astral), states that change in one rhythm, ie. the Earth’s movement around the Sun, its ebbs and flows, day and night cycles, and the many other cosmic rhythms, will effectphysical change in the man, himself. Any violation of coordination between these rhythms causes discomfort and even near illness in the organism.
Our physical body serves as exponent of our inner lead pulse, and, at the same time, it is our individuality that is our distinction in the Cosmos. The so-called “fine body” in essence has an electromagnetic material base. The Life of each of us is characterized by certain rhythmical schemes, which are subjected to physical death and retains an extracorporeal experience of the spirit, which is reincarnated. There is a supposition that the so-called “Shuman waves” takes place in the telepathic transmission of image and thought. These are waves of 7, 8 Hz frequency, which form a field of standing waves in the space between the Earth’s Ionosphere and its surface. It is our natural electromagnetic layer, which can be fully felt at the seashore or in the forest, though sea and forest absorb other harmful frequencies. It may occur that the brain enters a state of resonance with some external structure; a result will be the appearance of its image at a distance, i.e. there is a contact made by means of resonance but not by means of radiation. Since these waves have a large length (38 000 km), then transmission takes place immediately. Waves with such an extreme low frequency cannot be screened by the usual means. In essence, waves of an organism often coincide with these waves by phase. However, the problem is that waves with such low frequencies can transmit little information and therefore it is often impossible to receive a clear picture and give a full description of images of things.
Modern holistic (integral) approaches to understanding the Universe have sacral traditions, per se. These foundations were laid as traditions in religion, such as Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Christianity, where we can find a clear statement that every part of Cosmos includes the Whole. It is analogous to the principle of holography. It is considered that we can make a full hologram of the Universe based on any of its small parts. Formation of this hologram can take an arbitrarily long time. The Hologram of a real man is something different from the physical basis of an ideal cosmic rhythm.
Consciousness, which is a continual manifestation of the rarified substances (astral) of a man, is shifted by its phase in comparison with genetic material, and conscious will is only one of the universal instruments of cosmic purposefulness. A “right” man acting in a “right place is a man whose intentions are coordinated with cosmic rhythm. Conscious intention has power, and our main choice is to take responsibility for its results. So, actually we are made of waves, but not of matter, which would be called “solid.” All that we call -things- and -events- are manifestations of acting on these waves. Every man has his unique cosmic identifier assigned by a certain function of waves, which represent us. Every man has his own hologram, which contains a universal information about time. The Identifier is a main element of Cosmos; it characterizes an individual specificity of a subject, who using this identifier, can influence everything by methods, which seem to be unusual. We are a peculiar hologram, so potentially we know all about all.
The secret of Wardenclyffe is hidden. Nevertheless, many things show that the object built by Tesla in Long Island (at that time it was a New York suburb) went ahead of all the dreams of modern scientists. It was a translator of electromagnetic wave systems. By means of these waves (that scientist called earthquakes), Tesla could attain “mental” shifts in people and animals, fires in the atmosphere, creation of an impenetrable energy barrier in the ionosphere, controlling time, splitting and condensing of the clouds by means of corresponding wave frequency, and, finally, an inexhaustible energy from the Ether using the principle of “Ether Technology,” which is still unknown to us. Tesla demonstrated his experiments to numerous witnesses, but he never announced all of the results nor divulged to anyone his scientific principles. The real reason for building this giant electromagnetic and mechanical oscillator and his motives, could be much more serious than we could yet imagine.
A report by W. Pickering, professor of the Harvard Observatory, named “Alternating light from Mars”, was published in “New York Times” on January 16, 1901. It may be shortened:
“Last year in the beginning of December we got a telegram from Lowell observatory at Arizona. This telegram informed that a strong light flux was noticed coming from Mars and lasted for 70 minutes. Lowell observatory specializes on observations of Mars, and observer was an attentive, approved and experienced man, so we have no doubt in his statements. We will consider these facts immediately and will notify Europe and America via telegraph. The light came from the known point on Mars and there is no unusual in this point according to scientific data. Whatever there was, now we have no means to research anything. We cannot say with certainty if it is a sign that there is an intellect. For the time present this phenomenon is inexplicable.”
When this information appeared, Tesla was in New York. He just returned from Colorado Springs, where he, through the course of year, made epochal and inexplicable experiments with electromagnetic fields of resonant properties. (Tesla’s laboratory in Colorado was situated precisely on the summit of Pike’s Peak. It is interesting that this peak was deified by the Hopi Indians- they consider it the Spiritual Pole of the World).
Encouraged by the information from Lowell observatory, Tesla stated in the New York Gazette that during his research in Colorado Springs, he communicated with Mars himself. At that time, he made hints about having already designed a device for interplanetary communication, which would be improved in the near future. He wrote: “I’ll never forget the first feeling that I felt when I understood that I have a contact with something, which will have priceless and immense results for all humankind. Things that I noticed, frightened me as if I saw something mysterious and almost preternatural. Little by little I understood that I am the first who hear messages sending from one planet to another…”
Respected Professor Holden didn’t consider Tesla’s contacts with extraterrestrial beings by means of electromagnetism, because he thought it was not a serious case. Tesla worked with some extremely long electromagnetic waves of very high frequency that do not correspond to accepted theory, because increasing of a wave’s frequency is always related with short-wave transmission. However, Tesla’s waves were different from those discovered by Hertz. They propagated with a speed, which far exceeded the speed of light, better to say that their propagation was instantaneous. Tesla had his own theory of electromagnetism, which is still not properly interpreted. He discovered not only the possibility of wireless transmission of energy through the Earth and atmosphere without any losses, but also proved an unprecedented “breakdown power” of these waves during their negotiation of space. There is an unconfirmed legend that Tesla was the first to send periodical signals to the stars.
Supposedly, Tesla sent coded geometrical theorems like those of Tales, Pythagoras, and an Archimedean formula of the harmonic series (we speak about addition of the series 1+1/2+1/4+1/8+…. the Sum of this series is equal to two but, the number of terms can be infinite). Three days later, Tesla was surprised – he got a response. He guessed the principle, which lie in the basis of the response code, and got a human face with regular features. At first he couldn’t understand if this picture was made by those who sent this signal and wanted to show that they know of our civilization, or they drew their own image to demonstrate that there are similar beings in Cosmos. If it is true, then it should be clear that Tesla refused any open discussion of this discovery because he couldn’t get a response. But soon, something occurred that returned discussion of this happening in the American press.
In 1902, Lord Kelvin, a famous English physicist, visited America. When he spoke to Tesla, he expressed a full consent and understanding of the fact that details of Tesla’s “extraterrestrial communication” were not for public discussion. After a banquet (organized in his honor), Lord Kelvin said some good words about New York: “It is the city with the best illumination in the world and it is the only place on the Earth, which can be seen from Mars”. In addition, as if in some kind of inspiration he finally exclaimed “Mars is signaling New York”. This time, nobody had objections. Even persistent Professor Holden kept silent. It was not polite to contradict such an old and respected man as Lord Kelvin. Instead of objections, an article written by the writer and publicist Julian Hotorn, Tesla’s associate, appeared as a direct conclusion from this discussion. He described Tesla’s sensational methods as a fantasy. Hotorn wrote:
“It is evident that people from Mars and other old planets had been visiting Earth for years and attentively observe the development of our civilization. Besides, Tesla’s birth changed all. Maybe, it is possible that people from the stars control his spiritual and scientific development, isn’t it? Is there anybody who can know something concrete?” In the heat of the disputes concerning Martians, Tesla was alone in his Wardenclyffe Tower and continued to work hard and insensibly on the biggest project of his life; Wardenclyffe Tower was to make radical changes in the development of our civilization. These changes cannot easily be considered true.
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Earth – the planet as a resonant system
When making a decision to build a relaying station, Tesla at first bought a plot at Long Island and then asked the famous J.P. Morgan for help. Morgan was a member of numerous secret organizations; also, he was a genius of business organization. He already had cancer and had a hope that Tesla‘s science would help him recover. He expected that Tesla somehow would connect him to some energy source and make him young and healthy forever. Tesla thought that Morgan would be a man who would understand his plan. He considered that a man has predestination and every man is predisposed to its own activity. Negotiations between the two friends were private. There is no clear information about the time when Tesla decided to begin the construction of Tower and about expectations of Morgan as businessman and financier.
During his public appearances, Tesla changed his statements of Wardenclyffe Tower at Long Island, twice. At first, he stated it was for a universal telegraph and telephone system, and secondly, for wireless energy transmission through the Earth. The truth might be found in his letter to Morgan: “What I contemplate and what I can certainly accomplish, Mr. Morgan, is not a simple transmission of messages without wires to great distances but it is the transformation of the entire Globe into a sentient being, as it were, which can feel in all its parts and through which thought may be flashed as through the brain…” Many authors, especially Tesla‘s biographers, blamed Morgan for cutting off financial assistance at the moment when Tesla was on the threshold of important discoveries. Tesla, in his autobiography “My Inventions” clearly tells us about it. In spite of all that was said, Morgan fulfilled all his obligations regarding him.
“My project was retarded by laws of nature. The world was not prepared for it. It was too far ahead of time. But the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success.“
Tesla tested his transmitter at its full capacity on June 15, 1903. He began his experiment sharp at midnight. This night New York citizens witnessed the event which would astound future science. Glaringly bright strands of electrical plasma, the length of more than a hundred miles connected the spherical cupola of Wardenclyffe with the sky. The next day the “New York Sun” wrote:
“people living near Tesla’s laboratory at Long Island were intrigued very much in his experiments with wireless energy transmission. Last night they were the witnesses of a very strange phenomena – multicolored lightning made by Tesla himself, the inflammation of the atmospheric layers at different altitudes and along the New York territory, Night suddenly turned to day. At times, the air was full of luminescence, concentrated along the edges of human body, and people radiated a mysterious shine or glow. They seemed to be (as) ghosts.”
According to Tesla’s initial plan, five towers, the same as Wardenclyffe, would be built. The second tower would be constructed in Amsterdam, the third in China and the fourth and fifth built at the North and South Poles. However, this plan was postponed due to reasons that should (now) be investigated. Finally, if all this could have been realized, what would be achieved? The Earth would become a uniform homogeneous system, which could be controlled by (wireless) telephone commands, which would start certain oscillators, producing and transmitting electromagnetic waves of various frequencies. The same electromagnetic system would be completed with a system for mechanical resonance with the Earth. These systems consisted of a tunnel passed under the laboratory and filled with water and oil, and hydraulic pumps serving as oscillators. By synchronized actions, based on exact mathematical calculations, both systems would start vibration simultaneously together with the rarified stratosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere, as with all liquid and solid structures of the planet. The entire planet would vibrate and resonate in unison!
Before conjecture relating to all the possible consequences of such an event, we should give two more examples that are unusual. In his interview of July 17, 1930 given to the “New York Sun” Tesla redoubled his enigma, stating that people who live near Wardenclyffe and were frightened with his experiments could see much more…
Tesla said, ” if during last two years they were more awake than asleep, they could get acquainted with really incredible things. Sometime, but not now; I’ll announce something, which you cannot find even in fairytales.”
After one unusual night, with Wardenclyffe Tower (the Magnifying Transmitter) fully operational, he fired (illuminated) the sky above not only New York, but also above all the vast area of the eastern Atlantic Ocean – Tesla suddenly left his laboratory without a clear reason and left everything untouched. As we know, he never crossed the threshold of Wardenclyffe, never visited it, and never appeared on its property again. It was very strange as, he didn’t take any calculations, drawing or document, not one paper. It was a turning point in his public scientific work. Personally, I feel that Tesla’s discovered something awe inspiring – something so fantastic that even Tesla himself could not believe it. I think that Wardenclyffe tower, fully functional, tapped the very fabric of nature – universal and unlimited power, freely available to anyone, anytime. I also think that in that moment in time when Tesla realized this fact – he deliberately stopped all work on Wardenclyffe. I think he realized his work could be weaponized!
Tesla’s ether technology
Tesla discovered and used the law, concerning the fundamental properties of Ether. Supposition made about Ether’s continuity as one of the main cosmic mediums means that the imaginary center of the Cosmos is everywhere, that law of structuring of such medium should have analogues with the law of location of points in geometric spheres. There is no information that Tesla formed nor told his theory in such a way, but he left some principles of systems working, which are unknown to modern physics. The question is about an Ether Generator, i.e. electromagnetic ball, which has constant electrical potential in spite of any energy leakage, than about a synchronous motor working on the gravitational waves of the planets of the Solar System (this motor turns on independently at certain seasons and reacts on the corresponding arrangement of planets. It also independently turns off, when the resonant interval of time ends). Besides, Tesla designed a metal disk, which could be hung at some height and has anti-gravitational properties, which do not depend on attractive force of any given place. Parts of this structured Ether can be resonant or not. In the first case, a condensation of subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons, or neutrons, takes place. These particles appear by means of resonant synthesis of photons, according to the same principles as during formation of photons as specific particles of Ether – Asynchronous, non-resonant parts of Ether form a space, in which resonating photons form matter.
Tesla’s Wardenclyffe Tower was a “ Pythagorean” oscillator. A Mathematical description of transmission of particular electromagnetic waves was identical with Pythagorean creative method. Signs used by Tesla in his equations have a single-meaning physical interpretation. Principles of Tesla’s ether technologies belong to the level of cosmic existence, on which it is possible to control space and time. The principle of resonance and harmonic oscillation of ether seems to be so clear that all problems of modern physics, especially problems of energy conversion, will be solved with its development.
By means of his vacuum tube Tesla got protons, electrons and neutrons directly from the physical continuum (ether) and reproduced them at any distance. Instead of giving ability to the bundle of protons to move free through space to some place, he created conditions for momentary appearances of arbitrary quantity of particles in the given place. Quantity of protons, neutrons and electrons was not limited by anything, the difference in their quantity was stipulated by the created shift in time. Starting from the supposition that Tesla knew something (unusual for science) and still inconceivable to all the laws of nature, we should think about what technical goals he followed using Wardenclyffe Tower and what he expected.
- To cause oscillations of the ionosphere. Since the difference of voltage between surface of the Earth and ionosphere constitutes about two billion volts, then the Tower is continually oscillating on upper and lower harmonics of oscillations of the ionosphere up to full coincidence with it by phase (up to resonance) and can discharge it in the same way as usual electrical condensers are discharged. Due to the reason that such a charge could pass immediately, there would be a real threat to New York. A high-energy plasma column of a very large diameter (possibly of several hundred kilometers) would appear from the ionosphere, and everything situated in this space would be disintegrated. Of course, Tesla had no intention to destroy New York. He only wanted to take energy from the ionosphere by means of short oscillatory intervals to recharge his huge oscillator, which required maximum voltage of one hundred million volts. As a system for hyperfine oscillating, Tesla used a huge quantity of ultraviolet lamps, placed at the top of his Tower.
- To take energy from Ether. It is possible to shift time coordinates and produce an energy transmission by time cycles from the past to the future without any violent release of electromagnetic equilibrium of environment by means of oscillation of non-resonance electromagnetic fields. Of course, it should be done strictly following mathematical law, which determines the interrelations of frequencies with a great accuracy. In an opposite case, the results can get out of control and an unexpected destruction of material and biological objects or their momentary dropout form segments of our reality can take place like in the Philadelphia experiment.
- To open temporary windows in “parallel worlds”. Since parallel worlds have an electromagnetic structure with the wavelength and frequency of oscillations different from those of the Earth, then is could be possible to make some connection between frequencies of oscillations of our world and other worlds by means of complex harmonic oscillating. Due to this, some pictures of these worlds could become apparent in our earth conditions (and vice versa).
- To accelerate human evolution. If we make a permanent high-frequency field harmonizing with collective electromagnetic field of people, then little by little it will be possible to achieve an increase in sensibility of perception and increase in ability to receive ideas. Radiation of these frequencies could be harmful: any disharmony of field (non-resonance) calls a partial separation of astral and physical substance of a man, it can lead to sickness (for example, cancer) or mental disorders. Full separation of one substance from another, of course, leads to death. In addition, all these processes act slowly. Due to their lack of knowledge, people pollute their electromagnetic environment more and more by radio waves, microwave radiation form locators (which call cancer, it was proved experimentally). Other electromagnetic radiation also has negative impact. These electromagnetic waves are in disharmony with frequencies of oscillations, which are natural for vital functions and for informational field of Solar system.
- To be able to transfer the Earth into “parallel realities”. If Tesla had finished the construction of the system made of five transmitters and started it, the whole Earth would be in a state of oscillation as a uniform, resonant structure, and in such oscillation, peculiar to some other reality, and thus physically move us to the “parallel world”. Thus possibly, he wanted to accelerate the evolution of civilization. However, it could be very dangerous, because if the Earth enters the state of resonance and is oscillating with “parallel worlds,” then catastrophes could occur like that was described in the myth about Atlantis. Modern experimenters should keep in mind that the secret of this physical world lies in metaphysics and as long as our science is blinded with research of “ crude” matter, we will be in the state of an illusionary split consciousness. It is necessary to provide a breakdown of human consciousness, and it will happen in physics. We should free the human mind and adjust it to deep cosmological research.
Ethics is a cosmic principle, which contributes to energy distribution, isn’t it? Then it can get a status of natural law. And we will be able to explain to the supposed inhabitants of worlds, which are shifted in time, why we can influence the Galaxy and stars by means of special reactors and why we take part in experiments, which directly change us. If ethics is really a harmony and kindness is equilibrium of energy, then mathematically, the cosmic ethics certainly act in the world. It is impossible to violate mathematical laws. “There is no Czar’s way in geometry” – said Euclid to the Czar Edip, who worked on solutions to difficult geometrical problems.
The Cosmos itself seems to be a big experimenter. Our mind asks it questions, clever or not. That’s why every true philosopher and scientist should reject the applied science and rigid theory, when he studies something concerning cosmic phenomena. Tesla’s evolutionary philosophical positions beginning from oracular ones and finishing with engineering ones, beginning from engineering ones and finishing with metaphysical ones, such as Tesla’s private life – these all are the milestones towards formation of a new paradigm of scientific and technical civilization. His attitude toward people and to himself, is a result of a transpersonal absolute manifested in him. He had no personal attitude toward anybody including himself and that’s why he made so few mistakes during his life.
Tesla is often cited in modern science. The scientists, who didn’t notice contradictions in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory until now, began to study Tesla, especially those who work on unification, electromagnetism, gravitation and strong and weak interactions. Is it true that matter is infinitely divisible or not? Can space be divided infinitely? Finally, what is the role of time in physical processes? Maybe time is only a measure, a usual coordinate, as it is supposed in modern physical theories basing on the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.
Tesla’s ideas about ether as a basic medium, which structurally joins space and matter, led to stagnation in physical thinking and to continual returning to out of date ideas. In scientific circles, which take a risk of creating a “new physics,” recognize Tesla’s concepts as now become increasingly valuable and they are (finally) being studied seriously. There are experiments with ultra low and ultra high frequency oscillations, which have specific modulation and form the radiation of the ionosphere. All the possible consequences of this are still unknown. This includes control of meteorological phenomena, especially hurricanes and atmospheric pressure, infusion of thoughts at a distance by means of electromagnetism, i.e. resonance with electromagnetic transmitters. It becomes evident that it is possible with technology to imitate external electromagnetic manifestations of human thinking. It is the position of Tesla’s cybernetics. “A man is an “automatic machine” of cosmic forces” – underlined Tesla in his main articles and lectures.
Experimenters can say that it is much easier to excite the mass emotions of people by means of corresponding oscillations of the ionosphere, which includes harmonics of the collective unconscious state of all humankind. The Ionosphere is key to controlling mass feelings and thoughts. Tesla understood all this as far back as 1899 during his Colorado Springs experiments. Modern university science reject Tesla’s ideas mainly because it cannot understand them. The second reason is the opposition, which Tesla presented to nuclear physics, and his prediction that application of corresponding technology would not be continuous and quantum mechanics has no serious scientific future.
Tesla, as a cosmologist, had his own philosophical and religious position
Aristotle stated that there is an independent higher spirit in cosmic space – enteleheia. This spirit sets matter in motion and thought is his main attribute. In the same way, Tesla believed that a uniform Cosmos is joint in its material and spiritual sense. There is some nucleus in cosmic space, from which we take all strength, inspiration, and which attracts us forever. Tesla felt its power and its values, which it sends all around the Universe and keeps in harmony. He couldn’t guess the secret of this nucleus but he knew that it existed, and when he wanted to give it some material attribute, he ascribed that it is LIGHT, and when he tried to understand its spiritual principle, then it was BEAUTY and SYMPATHY. A man who keeps this (religion) in himself, feels strong, works with joy because he feels himself as a part of universal harmony.
Resume on perspectives of Tesla’s science
Not only physicists, who continue Tesla’s work, but all people who think about scientific problems, agree that modern physics is a contradictory system of knowledge. On one hand, time is relative and depends on the observer. From the other hand, it is stated that time as a quantum transfer cannot be measured. Nuclear reactions are studied on cathedras of history of physics. In the course of these reactions, transformation of matter into energy goes without residue. In astrophysics, full transformation of matter into energy is not possible. It is known that mass calculated as an effect of the force of attraction differs from the mass calculated from the speed of rotation of the stars around the center of the Galaxy by means of “Doppler’s” shift of lines in spectrums of their radiation. Therefore a significant defect of visual mater or mass can be found, and it amounts to 90%. Instead of changing the theory, scientific schools speak about “defects of mass.”
Tesla worked on special “vacuum tube with an open tip,” which serves to transmit particles at any arbitrary large distances. The laying was made by electrostatic way by the lines of electromagnetic layers of atmosphere, which can be distinguished by the naked eye. It is the layer where clouds float. It became known that a multiphase system, inductive motor and generators of alternating current are the less significant Tesla’s discoveries. The most important should be those which relate to his experiments with Ether and time. We can underline a perfectly new cosmological physics, which is based on electromagnetic resonance of ether, and on the resonant effects of time.
Tesla’s cosmology is cosmology of a general type, which relates to an isotropic and infinite Universe. At the same time, Maxwell’s electromagnetism can be applied at comparably small distances. In essence, Maxwell made a mathematization of Faraday’s experiments, but he didn’t build a concept of this problem to an end. Due to the incompleteness of Maxwell’s theory, great difficulties in Special theory of relativity appeared (interrelation of speed of propagation of energy and speed of light). Einstein himself ignored relativist changes of space and time with motion in photo-effect, since if energy changes together with speed, then there is no effect, when energy equivalent to electron trajectory split out by photon is absent. In general, theory of relativity, and shortcomings of Maxwell’s theory led to an idea of “world line” (in essence, it is a pan-cosmic extrapolation of magnetic force lines, which are visualized by iron filings on laboratory tables) and finally, to the notion of Cosmos finiteness, which alternately shrinks, up to the “point,” which is located out of measurements, or explodes…an unlikely development. It could be surprising not only for Tesla, but also for many philosophers and scientists, Pythagoras, Plato, Euclid and others.
Nikola Tesla and his science are very significant for the modern world of tele-communicational systems and to find a way out of crisis of scientific and technical civilization, which needs philosophical ontology. During hundreds and thousands years, we had many great scientists, but nobody has a temple built in his honor. Neither Plank, Einstein, Bor, Pauli, Torichelli nor Newton in spite of their interest in alchemy, theology and mystics, none of them could convince people of transcendental significance of their scientific views.
Christian civilization is based on suffering, sacrifice and atonement of Christ, on the mystery of Christening, resurrection and the other world. It is full of human feelings and emotions. Technical epoch under the badge of Tesla is a humane symbol of spirit and matter unity and establishes not a religious belief, but belief in scientific principles, and gives a discernment in fundamental laws of Cosmos. Historically, Tesla radically changes the form of religious belief on the planetary level. That’s why he is not only a scientist but also a universal and historical phenomenon of a higher level. He changed spirituality of theology to the spirituality of science. Besides, modern physics already became a philosophy of new times, since it openly works with the structure of matter, genesis of Cosmos and, recently, Ethics.
Quantum mechanics of the Copenhagen Circle including Bor, Heisenberg and Pauli, does not give an answer to the question about the structure of the main unit of matter. The Theory of relativity doesn’t solve the problem of time substantiality and doesn’t explain the essence of force in concept. Tesla’s physics relating to the real physical space or Ether, and his scientific thought derived from the position of ancient cosmology and Pythagorean mathematics (not from electromagnetism of XXth Century) couldn’t be continued as long as there appeared other limits on the way of creation of general physical theory, which includes events of physical reality. After Chernobyl, all people understood that to play with nuclear energy is nothing more than irresponsibility without real understanding of matter’s structure. And the tragedy of spaceship Challenger reminds us that humankind still does not have enough experience in long space travels. It is better not to speak about the medical aspects of interstellar travels. Tesla’s physics gives answers and instruments to use it in cosmology.
Sometimes expressions that we use to denote some physical notion didn’t exist in the time of Tesla. The same is with the method of introduction of mathematical symbols to make calculations. It gives a great benefit to a young electrical engineer, who many a time heard that Julius Mayer never used the word energy; that Archimedes and Galileo calculated all by mathematical methods, but had no signs for calculations, which are familiar to us, now; Newton, who opened infinitesimal quantities, nevertheless made all proofs by means of geometrical symbols, as well as Euclid and all other scientists living in the period between them. To understand Tesla, it is necessary not only to read his original works, but also to explain the meaning of terms in his scientific account, from Tesla’s point of view. Advanced modern science gradually begins to study Tesla’s heritage. We do not speak about commercial or universal aspects of scientific knowledge, but about summits of scientific thought – unknown to wide intellectual community, about the knobs of separated net of worldwide global informational space for humankind, in which everybody is connected with the others by the channels of planetary tele-communicational net. This connection is made by two main coincident parameters, conformity of ideas and intellectual level. However, the thing that joins all is a time comprehension as a basis for new civilization. All early civilizations originate only from their attitude to space.
According to Tesla, in planetary communities of the future, all energy will be taken from inexhaustible and free sources. He pointed out that the Earth is a nucleus of a huge generator, which in rotation, creates a difference of potentials equal to billions volts with a slowed ionosphere, and that humankind really lives in a spherical condenser of huge capacity, which continuously self-charges and self-discharges. In this condenser the ionosphere is a phase, atmosphere is a dielectric and the Earth is zero. Thus, a global electrical process proceeds on our planet. Electrical energy does its work and then returns to the natural environment of the planet Earth.
Tesla built linear accelerators in the form of open vacuum tubes, i.e. tubes working in room temperature without energy losses, since while laying at target, electrostatic properties of the target itself are used; that’s why it is possible to transmit any quantity of energy at any distance by means of induction. Kenneth Corum, who repeated Tesla’s experiment in America and achieved some results, but still didn’t understand the essence. Tesla’s particles do not travel in space as other known particles or Hertz’s waves, but they are self-generating from inductive field like fire balls. The question is about an original Tesla theory, which is related with cosmic radiation and was proved by him experimentally. Tesla’s reversible magnetic field has a universal significance. It is a mathematical idea, which is realized directly in every echelon of cosmic being.
I may seem bold to state that even Tesla’s inductive motor, the so-called asynchronous motor, is not studied enough in its conceptual sense. Among Tesla’s inventions, there are many mysteries that are left unstudied:
- in radio engineering there are some transmissions on the same frequency, which cannot be jammed (Twenty unused Tesla patents);
- in the structure of matter, “I used to split the atoms, without releasing any energy” – it is Tesla’s statement of 1933;
- concerning attractive forces, there is a model of Tesla’s gravitational motor with a tin engine and glass stator, which only works once a year under the influence of certain planetary arrangements;
- in the theory of Ether (matter is structured from ether and dissolves in ether again following simple mathematical laws, but if generated energy is more than the dissolved one, then cosmic catastrophes take place);
- Tesla’s medical devices have been left unstudied;
- and on the influence of low-frequency waves on the brain’s operation and thought/memory processes, we can only guess. All of these have been left unstudied and far too often, ignored.
Tesla’s attitude to the concepts of Buddhism is that “I” is illusionary. “Really, we are something different, like waves in subjective time and space, and when these waves disappear, nothing remains from us. There is no personality. We cannot saw that waves in the ocean have individuality. There is only an illusionary sequence of waves, which go one after another. We are not the same that was yesterday; I am only a sequence of relatively existences, which are not similar. This sequence is that thing, which create an effect of continuity, but not my subjective and mistaken understanding of my real life.”
I cannot imagine Tesla smiling. I see him sad, since I see in him what a man could accomplish, when he gave all his essence to the power of natural laws.
most important dates of Nikola Tesla’s life
- 1856 – on July 10, at the midnight Nikola Tesla was born in Smilyan, in Lika (province of Austrian monarchy) in the family of Serbian priest.
- 1875-1878 – he studied in Polytechnic Institute in Graze (Austro-Hungary).
- 1882 – in Budapest, have been walking around the park, Tesla made a discovery relating to the reversible magnetic field.
- 1883 – in Strasbourg he was employed in Edison’s Continental Company and built a model of the first inductive motor.
- 1884 – he left for New York and began to work in Edison’s laboratory.
- 1885 – he left Edison, established his own company and started to produce motors and generators of multiphase alternating current.
- 1888 – on May 16 he read a lecture in American institute of electrical engineers on the topic “New system of motors and transformers of alternating current”.
- 1890 – he announced his results on physiological influence of high-frequency electricity.
- 1891 – he read lectures on the topic “Experiments with alternating current of very high frequency and its application in artificial wireless lighting”; registered patents of “spark oscillator with resonance transformer”.
- 1892 – he came to London and read lectures in Royal scientific society on the topic “Light and other high-frequency phenomena”, in the institute of electrical engineers he read lectures on the topic “Experiments with alternating current of high voltage and high frequency”; then the same lectures he read in Paris.
- 1893 – attracted public attention on the World Exhibition in Chicago. He skipped a high-frequency current through his body and demonstrated a model of reversible magnetic field, the so-called “Tesla’s rotating iron egg” – The EGG OF COLUMBUS.
- 1895 – on May 13 Tesla’s laboratory in New York was burnt with fire.
- 1897 – he registered twelve patents in radio engineering.
- 1898 – registration of the paten for teleautomatic control (experiment with the ship on the lake in New York, Central Park. Tesla made a wireless control of the ship and staggered all witnesses).
- 1899 – a construction of hydroelectric power station at Niagara was finished.
- 1899-1900 – experiments in Colorado Springs.
- 1901-1905 – construction of Wardenclyffe Tower at Long Island, near New York.
- 1909-1922 – he registered patents only in mechanical engineering (pumps, tachometers, bladeless turbines).
- 1943 – on January 7 Tesla died in New York, in “New Yorker” hotel. At first, he was read the burial service according to Orthodox tradition, and then his body was burnt according to Buddhist ceremony. My question is if he was truly burnt…. Or transfigured and conveyed…not as mere ashes…
His main legacy is in Tesla Museum in Belgrade City, Yugoslavia.
Compliments to the Author: Dr. Velimir Abramovic ( http://www.scienceoftime.org/ ) and used by permission.
Translation and grammatical corrections to the English language: by Frank Germano (note: please excuse the errors in tense throughout the article as this is still a work in progress. My attempt was solely to convey Dr. Abramovic’s original feelings and thoughts, and preserve the overall essence of his article.)
Michael Pupin, From Immigrant to Inventor, Charles Scribner’s Sons, N.Y., pages 285-286, 1923.
Suggested Books for further reading and study, from Amazon.com:
Highly recommended are “Journey To Mars; Are We already there?,” Marc Siefer’s “Wizard” and Sesh Heri’s mind-boggling sci-fi “Wonder Of the Worlds”
THE WONDER WORLD TO BE CREATED BY ELECTRICITY
Manufacturer’s Record, September 9, 1915, by Dr. Nikola Tesla
This is the exact transcript of Nikola Tesla’s speech. As you read through this, think. This is Tesla, in 1915, stating what he believed to be the future. Pay close attention to his words, and his wording. He hit it “dead-on!” In short, Tesla envisioned nearly one hundred years ago, what our modern age would be. Not bad.
Nikola Tesla: Whoever wishes to get a true appreciation of the greatness of our age should study the history of electrical development. There he will find a story more wonderful than any tale from Arabian Nights. It begins long before the Christian era when Thales, Theophrastus and Pliny tell of the magic properties of electron – the precious substance we call amber – that came from the pure tears of the Heliades, sisters of Phaeton, the unfortunate youth who attempted to run the blazing chariot of Phoebus and nearly burned up the earth. It was but natural for the vivid imagination of the Greeks to ascribe the mysterious manifestations to a hyperphysical cause, to endow the amber with life and with a soul.
Whether this was actual belief or merely poetic interpretation is still a question. When at this very day many of the most enlightened people think that the pearl is alive, that it grows more lustrous and beautiful in the warm contact of the human body. So too, it is the opinion of men of science that a crystal is a living being and this view is being extended to embrace the entire physical universe since Prof. Jagadis Chunder Bose has demonstrated, in a series of remarkable experiments, that inanimate matter responds to stimuli as plant fiber and animal tissue.
The superstitious belief of the ancients, if it existed at all, can therefore not be taken as a reliable proof of their ignorance, but just how much they knew about electricity can only be conjectured. A curious fact is that the ray or torpedo fish, was used by them in electro-therapy. Some old coins show twin stars, or sparks, such as might be produced by a galvanic battery. The records, though scanty, are of a nature to fill us with conviction that a few initiated, at least, had a deeper knowledge of amber – phenomena. To mention one, Moses was undoubtedly a practical and skillful electrician far in advance of his time. The Bible describes precisely and minutely arrangements constituting a machine in which electricity was generated by friction of air against silk curtains and stored in a box constructed like a condenser. It is very plausible to assume that the sons of Aaron were killed by a high tension discharge and that the vestal fires of the Romans were electrical. The belt drive must have been known to engineers of that epoch and it is difficult to see how the abundant evolution of static electricity could have escaped their notice. Under favorable atmospheric conditions a belt may be transformed into a dynamic generator capable of producing many striking actions. I have lighted incandescent lamps, operated motors and performed numerous other equally interesting experiments with electricity drawn from belts and stored in tin cans.
That many facts in regard to the subtle force were known to the philosophers of old can be safely concluded, the wonder is, why two thousand years elapsed before Gilbert in 1600 published his famous work, the first scientific treatise on electricity and magnetism. To an extent this long period of unproductiveness can be explained. Learning was the privilege of a few and all information was jealously guarded. Communication was difficult and slow and a mutual understanding between widely separated investigators hard to reach. Then again, men of those times had no thought of the practical, they lived and fought for abstract principles, creeds, traditions and ideals. Humanity did not change much in Gilbert’s time but his clear teachings had a telling effect on the minds of the learned. Friction machines were produced in rapid succession and experiments and observations multiplied. Gradually fear and superstition gave way to scientific in-sight and in 1745 the world was thrilled with the news that Kleist and Leyden had succeeded in imprisoning the uncanny agent in a phial from which it escaped with an angry snap and destructive force. This was the birth of the condenser, perhaps the most marvelous electrical device ever invented.
Two tremendous leaps were made in the succeeding forty years. One was when Franklin demonstrated the identity between the gentle soul of amber and the awe-inspiring belt of Jupiter; the other when Galvany and Volta brought out the contact and chemical battery, from which the magic fluid could be drawn in unlimited quantities. The succeeding forty years bore still greater fruit. Oersted made a significant advance in deflecting a magnetic needle by an electric current, Arago produced the electro-magnet, Seebeck the thermo-pile and in 1831, as the crowning achievement of all, Faraday announced that he had obtained electricity from a magnet, thus discovering the principle of that wonderful engine – the dynamo, and inaugurating a new era both in scientific research and practical application.
From that time on inventions of inestimable value have followed one another at a bewildering rate. The telegraph, telephone, phonograph and incandescent lamp, the induction motor, oscillatory transformer, Roentgen ray, Radium, wireless and numerous other revolutionary advances have been made and all conditions of existence eighty-four years which have since elapsed, the subtle agents dwelling in the living amber and loadstone have been transformed into cyclopean forces turning the wheels of human progress with ever increasing speed. This, in brief, is the fairy tale of electricity from Thales to the present day. The impossible has happened, the wildest dreams have been surpassed and the astounded world is asking: What is coming next?
ELECTRICAL POSSIBILITIES IN COAL AND IRON
Many a would-be discoverer, failing in his efforts, has felt the regret to have been born at a time when everything has been already accomplished and nothing is left to be done. This erroneous impression that, as we are advancing, the possibilities of invention are being exhausted, is not uncommon. In reality it is just the opposite. Spenser has conveyed the right idea when he likened civilization to the sphere of light which a lamp throws out in darkness. The brighter the lamp and the larger the sphere the greater is its dark boundary. It is paradoxical, yet true, to say, that the more we know the more ignorant we become in the absolute sense, for it is only through enlightenment that we become conscious of our limitations. Precisely one of the most gratifying results of intellectual evolution is the continuous opening up of new and greater prospects. We are progressing at an amazing pace, but the truth is that, even in fields most successfully exploited, the ground has only been broken. What has been so far done by electricity is nothing compared with what the future has in store. Not only this, but there are now innumerable things done in old-fashioned ways which are much inferior in economy, convenience and many other respects to the new method. So great are the advantages of the latter that whenever an opportunity presents itself the engineer advises his client to “do it electrically.”
Consider, in illustration, one of the largest industries, that of coal. From this valuable mineral we chiefly draw the sun’s stored energy which is required to meet our industrial and commercial needs. According to statistical records, the output in the United States during the past year was 480,000,000 tons. In perfect engines this fuel would have been sufficient to develop 500,000,000 horse-power steadily for one year, but the squandering is so reckless that we do not get more than 5 per cent of its heating value on the average. There is an appalling waste in mining, handling, transportation, store and use of coal, which could be very much reduced through the adoption of a comprehensive electrical plan in all these operations. The market value of the yearly product would be easily doubled and an immense sum added to the revenues of the country. What is more, inferior grades, billions of tons of which are being thrown away, might be turned to profitable use.
Similar considerations apply to natural gas and mineral oil, the annual loss of which amounts to hundreds of millions of dollars. In the very near future such waste will be looked upon as criminal and the introduction of the new methods will be forced upon the owners of such properties. Here, then, is an immense field for the use of electricity in many ways, vast industries which are bound to be revolutionized through its extensive application.
To give another example, I may refer to the manufacture of iron and steel, which is carried on in this country on a scale truly colossal. During the last year, notwithstanding unfavorable business conditions, 31,000,000 tons of steel have been produced. It would lead too far to dwell on the possibilities of electrical improvements in the manufacturing processes themselves, and I will only indicate what is likely to be accomplished in using the waste gases from the coke ovens and blast furnaces to generate electricity for industrial purposes.
Since in the production of pig-iron for every ton about one ton of coke is employed, the yearly consumption of coke may be put at 31,000,000 tons. The combustion in the blast furnaces yields, per minute, 7,000,000 cubic feet of gas of a heating value of 110 B. T. units per cubic foot. Of this total, without making special provision, 4,000,000 cubic feet may be made available for power purposes. If all the heat energy of this gas could be transformed into mechanical effort, it would develop 10,389,000 horse-power. This result is impossible, but it is perfectly practicable to obtain 2,500,000 horse-power electrical energy at the terminals of the dynamos.
In the manufacture of coke approximately 9400 cubic feet of gas are evolved per ton of coal. This gas is excellent for power purposes, having an average heating value of 600 B. T. units, but very little is now used in engines, largely because of their great cost and other imperfections. A ton of coke requires about 1.32 tons of American coal; hence the total coal consumption per annum on the above basis is nearly 41,000,000 tons, which give, per minute, 733,000 cubic feet of gas. Assuming the yield of surplus or rich gas to be 333,000 cubic feet, the balance of 400,000 cubic feet could be used in gas engines. The heat contents would be, theoretically, sufficient to develop 5,660,000 horse-power, of which 1,500,000 horse-power could be obtained in the form of electric energy.
I have devoted much thought to this industrial proposition, and find that with new, efficient, extremely cheap and simple thermo-dynamic transformers not less than 4,000,000 horse-power could be developed in electric generators by utilizing the heat of these gases, which, if not entirely wasted, are only in part and inefficiently employed.
With systematic improvements and refinements much better results could be secured and an annual revenue of $50,000,000 or more derived. The electrical energy could be advantageously used in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and production of fertilizers, for which there is an unlimited demand and the manufacture of which is restricted here on account of the high cost of power. I expect confidently the practical realization of the project in the very near future, and look to exceptionally rapid electrical development in this direction.
Water-power offers great opportunities for novel electrical applications, particularly in the department of electro-chemistry. The harness of waterfalls is the most economical method known for drawing energy from the sun.This is due to the fact that both water and electricity are incompressible. The net efficiency of the hydro-electric process can be as high as 85 per cent. The initial outlay is generally great, but the cost of maintenance is small and the convenience offered ideal. My alternating system is invariably employed , and so far about 7,000,000 horse-power have been developed. As generally used we do not get more than six-hundredths of a horse-power per ton of coal per year. This water energy is therefore equivalent to that obtainable from an annual supply of 120,000,000 tons of coal, which is about 25 per cent of the total output in the United States. The estimate is conservative, and in view of the immense waste of coal 50 per cent may be a closer guess.
We get better appreciation of the tremendous value of this power in our economic development when we remember that, unlike fuel, which demands a terrible sacrifice of human energy and is consumed, it is supplied without effort and destruction of material and equals the mechanical performance of 150,000,000 men — one and one-half times the entire population of this country. These figures are imposing; nevertheless, we have only begun the exploitation of this vast national resource.
There are two chief limitations at present — one in the availability of the energy, the other in its transmission to distance. The theoretical power of the falling water is enormous. If we assume for the rain clouds an average height of 15,000 feet and annual precipitation of 33 inches, the 24 horse-power per square mile is over 4000, and for the whole area in the United States more than 12,000,000,000 horse-power. As a matter of fact, the larger portion of the potential energy is used up in air friction. This, while disappointing to the economist, is a fortunate circumstance, for otherwise the drops would reach the ground with a speed of 800 feet per second — sufficient to raise blisters on our bodies, while hail would be positively deadly. Most of the water, which is available for power purposes comes from a height of about 2000 feet and represents over one and one-half billion horse-power, but we are only able to use an average fall of, say, 100 feet, which means that if all the water-power in this country were harnessed under the existing conditions only 80,000,000 horse-power could be obtained.
THE NEXT GREAT ACHIEVEMENT — ELECTRICAL CONTROL OF ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE
But the time is very near when we shall have the precipitation of the moisture of the atmosphere under complete control, and then it will be possible to draw unlimited quantities of water from the oceans, develop any desired amount of energy, and completely transform the globe by irrigation and intensive farming. A Greater achievement of man through the medium of electricity can hardly be imagined.
The present limitations in the transmission of power to distance will be overcome in two ways — through the adoption of underground conductors insulated by power, and through the introduction of the wireless art. The first plan I have advanced years ago. The underlying principle is to convey through a tubular conductor hydrogen at a very low temperature, freeze the surrounding material and thus secure a perfect insulation by indirect use of electric energy. In this manner the power derived from falls can be transmitted to distances of hundreds of miles with the highest economy and at a small cost. This innovation is sure to greatly extend the fields of electrical application. As to the wireless method, we have now the means for economic transmission of energy in any desired amount and to distances only limited by the dimensions of this planet. In view of assertions of some misinformed experts to the effect that in the wireless system I have perfected the power of the transmitter is dissipated in all directions, I wish to be emphatic in my statement that such is not the case. The energy goes only to the place where it is needed and to no other.
When these advanced ideas are practically realized we shall get the full benefit of water-power, and it will become our chief dependence in the supply of electricity for domestic, public and other uses in the arts of peace and war.
ECONOMY IN LIGHT AND POWER — ELECTRIC PROPULSION
In the great departments of electric light and power immense opportunities are offered through the introduction of all kinds of novel devices which can be attached to the circuits at convenient hours for the purpose of equalizing the loads and increasing the revenues from the plants. I have myself knowledge of a number of new appliances of this kind. The most important among them is probably an electrical ice machine which obviates entirely the use of dangerous and otherwise objectionable chemicals. The new machine will also require absolutely no attention and will be extremely economical in operation, so that the refrigeration will be effected very cheaply and conveniently in every household.
An interesting fountain, electrically operated, has been brought out which is likely to be extensively introduced, and will afford an unusual and pleasing sight in squares, parks, hotels and residences.
Cooking devices for all domestic purposed are being provides, and there is great demand for practical designs and suggestions in this field. The same may be stated of electric signs and other attractive means of advertisingwhich can be electrically operated. Some of the effects which it is possible to produce by electric currents are wonderful and lend themselves to exhibitions, and there is no doubt that much can be done in that direction. Theaters, public halls and private dwellings are in need of a great many devices and instruments for convenience and offer ample opportunities to an ingenious and practical inventor.
A vast and absolutely untouched field is the use of electricity for the propulsion of ships. The leading electrical company in this country has just equipped a large vessel with high-speed turbines and electric motors and has achieved a signal success. Applications of this kind will multiply at a rapid rate, for the advantages of the electrical drive are now patent to everybody. In this connection gyroscopic apparatus will probably play an important part, as its general adoption on vessels is sure to come. Very little has yet been done in the introduction of electrical drive in the various branches of industry and manufacture, and the prospects are unlimited.
A FEW OF THE WONDERS TO COME
Books have already been written on the agricultural uses of electricity, but the fact is that hardly anything has been practically done. The beneficial effects of electricity of high tension have been unmistakably established, and a revolution will be brought about through the extensive adoption of agricultural electrical apparatus. The safeguarding of forests against fires, the destruction of microbes, insects and rodents will, in due course, be accomplished by electrical means.
In the near future we shall see a great many new uses of electricity aiming at safety, particularly vessels at sea. We shall have electrical instruments for preventing collisions, and we shall even be able to disperse fogs by electric force and powerful and penetrative rays. I am hopeful that within the next few years wireless plants will be installed for the purpose of illuminating the oceans. The project is perfectly feasible, and if carried out will contribute more than any other provision to the safety of property and human lives at sea. The same plant could also produce stationary electrical waves and enable vessels to get at any time accurate bearings and other valuable practical data without resorting to the present means. It could also be used for time signaling and many other purposes of similar nature.
Electrotherapy is another great field in which there are unlimited possibilities for electrical applications. High-frequency currents especially have a great future. The time will come when this form of electrical energy will be available in every private residence. I consider it quite possible that through their surface actions we may do away with the customary bath, as the cleaning of the body can be instantaneously effected simply by connecting it to a source of currents or electric energy of very high potential, which results in the throwing off of dust or any small particles adhering to the skin. Such a dry bath, besides being convenient and time-saving, would also be of beneficial therapeutic influence. New electric devices for use of the deaf and blind are coming and will be a blessing to the afflicted.
In the prevention of crime electrical instruments will soon become an important factor. In court proceedings electric evidence will often be decisive. In a time not distant it will be possible to flash any image formed in thought on a screen and render it visible at any place desired. The perfection of this means of reading thought will create a revolution for the better in all our social relations. Unfortunately, it is true, that cunning lawbreakers will avail themselves of such advantages to further their nefarious business.
TELEGRAPHIC PHOTOGRAPHY AND OTHER ADVANCES
Great improvements are still possible in telegraphy and telephony. The use of a new receiving device which will be shortly described, and the sensitiveness of which can be increased almost without limit, will enable telephoning through aerial lines or cables however long by reducing the necessary working current to an infinitesimal value. This invention will dispense with the necessity of resorting to expensive constructions, which, however, are of circumscribed usefulness. It will also enormously extend the wireless transmission of intelligence in all its departments.
The next art to be inaugurated is that of picture transmission by ordinary telegraphic methods and existing apparatus. This idea of telegraphing or telephoning pictures is old, but practical difficulties have hampered commercial realizations. A number of improvements of great promise have been made, and there is every reason to expect that success will soon be achieved.
Another valuable novelty will be a typewriter electrically operated by the human voice. This advance will fill a long-felt want, as it will do away with the operator and save a great deal of labor and time in offices.
A new and extremely simple electric tachometer is being prepared for the market, and it is expected that it will prove useful in power plants and central stations, on boats, locomotives and automobiles.
Many municipal improvements based on the use of electricity are about to be introduced. We have soon to have everywhere smoke annihilators, dust absorbers, ozonizers, sterilizers of water, air, food and clothing, and accident preventers on streets, elevated roads and in subways. It will become next to impossible to contract disease germs or get hurt in the city, and country folk will got to town to rest and get well.
ELECTRIC INVENTIONS IN WAR
The present international conflict is a powerful stimulus to invention of devices and implements of warfare. An electric gun will soon be brought out. The wonder is that it was not produced long ago. Dirigibles and aeroplanes will be equipped with small electric generators of high tension, from which the deadly currents will be conveyed through the wires to the ground. Battleships and submarines will be provided with electric and magnetic feelers so delicate that the approach of any body underwater or in darkness will be detected. Torpedoes and floating mines are almost in sight which will direct themselves automatically and without fail get in fatal contact with the object to be destroyed. The art of telautomatics, or wireless control of automatic machines at a distance, will play a very important part in future wars and, possibly, in the next phases of the present one. Such contrivances which act as if endowed with intelligence will be used in innumerable ways for attack as well as defense. They may take the shape of aeroplanes, balloons, automobiles, surface or under-water boats, or any other form according to the requirement in each special case, and will be of greater range and destructiveness than the implements now employed. I believe that the telautomatic aerial torpedo will make the large siege gun, on which so much dependence is placed at present, obsolete.
A volume might be filled with such suggestions without exhausting the possibilities. The advance even under the conditions existing is rapid enough, but when the wireless transmission of energy for general use becomes a practical fact the human progress will assume the character of a hurricane. So all-surpassing is the importance of this marvelous art to the future existence and welfare of the human race that every enlightened person should have a clear idea of the chief factors bearing on its development.
THE POWER OF THE FUTURE
We have at our disposal three main sources of life-sustaining energy –– fuel, water-power and the heat of the sun’s rays. Engineers often speak of harnessing the tides, but the discouraging truth is that the tidewater over one acre of ground will, on the average, develop only one horse-power. Thousands of mechanics and inventors have spent their best efforts in trying to perfect wave motors, not realizing that the power so obtained could never compete with that derived from other sources. The force of wind offers much better chances and is valuable in special instances, but is by far inadequate. Moreover, the tides, waves and winds furnish only periodic and often uncertain power and necessitate the employment of large and expensive storage plants. Of course, there are other possibilities, but they are remote, and we must depend on the first of three resources. If we use fuel to get our power, we are living on our capital and exhausting it rapidly. This method is barbarous and wantonly wasteful, and will have to be stopped in the interest of coming generations. The heat of the sun’s rays represents an immense amount of energy vastly in excess of water-power. The earth receives an equivalent of 83 foot-pounds per second for each square foot on which the rays fall perpendicularly.
From simple geometrical rules applying to a spherical body it follows that the mean rate per square foot of the earth’s surface is one-quarter of that, or 20 3/4 foot-pounds. This is to say over one million horse-power per square mile, or 250 times the water-power for the same area. But that is only true in theory; the practical facts put this in a different aspect. For instance, considering the United States, and taking into account the mean latitude, the daily variation, the diurnal changes, the seasonal variations and casual changes, this power of the sun’s rays reduces to about one-tenth, or 100,00 horse-power per square mile, of which we might be able to recover in high-speed low-pressure turbines 10,000 horse-power. To do this would mean the installment of apparatus and storage plants so large and expensive that such a project is beyond the pale of the practical. The inevitable conclusion is that water-power is by far our most valuable resource. On this humanity must build its hopes for the future. With its full development and a perfect system of wireless transmission of the energy to any distance man will be able to solve all the problems of material existence. Distance, which is the chief impediment to human progress, will be completely annihilated in thought, word and action. Humanity will be united, wars will be made impossible and peace will reign supreme.