Viktor Schauberger and The Repulsine
” I must furnish those, who would protect or save life, with an energy source, which produces energy so cheaply that nuclear fission will not only be uneconomical, but ridiculous, This is the task I have set myself in what little life I have left” Viktor Schauberger…a letter to Aloys Kokaly, in 1953.
If you think about it for a while, I am sure you can think of many ways that nature uses a spiral, or vortex pattern. We all are familiar with the conical windings of sea shells, the spiral patterns of stellar galaxies, and even to ourselves, with our RNA and DNA structures in our bodies. Hurricanes, twisters, tornados, and cyclones, all of which are some of the most destructive storms and forces on our planet, all form the classic vortex spiral pattern. You must be familiar with the water flow out of bath tub, forming a vortex spiral down the drain…it spirals in different directions depending on which part of the planet you are on – counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere; clockwise in the southern hemisphere. You may have even emptied liquid from a bottle by shaking it to form a vortex and noticed it emptied quicker than if you had not.. It takes only a small amount of energy to get the vortex going, but, with the aid of gravity, the mini cyclone continues until the bottle is emptied. An American inventor built and patented a water ram pump from information involving the spiral flow which he claims to have gleamed from a visit to the Egyptian Pyramid. There may yet be a truth in the old laundry detergent advertisement of a white tornado in a bottle, admittedly, a big one. Mankind’s only real attempt to utilize the spiral vortex is in weapons of destruction by using a rifled barrel in arms ordinance to give projectiles flight stability, distance, and accuracy.
Common sense, and Viktor Schauberger’s own inventions, give us clues to how we may be able to tap this almost seemingly limitless energy potential. We have already discovered, through Schauberger’s own theories, and later confirmed by scientists such as Hebrand, and Hasselburg (see my “water power” page) that there is more energy and power available in flowing water, accelerated through a spiral vortex than is available from the same volume of water restrained and then flowing over a dam, on a scale of 9:1, in favor of the former, vortexian power. Clean, environmentally friendly, unlimited power is available all around us, yet, due to our conditioning from “big-business” and others, we refuse to accept and look closely at these alternatives. Schauberger did…and, following his lead, we will as well. Let’s continue with our story.
During World War Two, Victor Schauberger was interned in a Nazi concentration camp and was forced to work on a flying disk project using his ideas. (If you missed Page One and Page Two , go back now, and review for the actual stories!). It is not known if the project was completed, or, if the saucers actually flew in Germany. Reports vary, and no confirmed documentation remains. It is rather convincingly coincidental, however, that our own (US) pilots reported “strange flying disks” over Germany just prior to the War’s end. After World War II, Viktor migrated to the United States on promises by various agencies (CIA) to help him develop and test his ideas. Those promises later proved to be hollow. He went to a facility in Dallas Texas, and under uncertain direction, signed over all of the rights to his inventions and patents, to, none other than the US government (Army, Navy…who knows?!). He was sent back to his home-land of Austria, only to die, broken and disillusioned five days later. It would make a great headline for the ‘National Enquirer’…and unfortunately…it’s TRUE! Read an entire article – here – Viktor Schauberger Page Five.
Schauberger may have died, but some of his ideas remain. He suggested that we look at the cooling (implosion) cycle and not always be focused on the waste-heat produced from our devices (fission, explosions from internal combustion engines, jet turbines, etc.). The explosive force we now use to provide energy, such as in the automotive combustion cycle, for example, tends to be harmful to the environment, while the implosion equivalent (Nature’s way) may not be. We should be working with the laws of natural forces instead of using wasted explosive energy to oppose them.
In order to power its machines, today’s science gives priority to an oxidizing or metabolic process, wherein oxygen (atmospheric oxygen)- the natural stuff of breath – consumes the lower oxide or pro-toxide (a type of metallic calc or calx) which contains valuable growth-factors and which is a geo-spherical formative substance. This interchange of substance (metabolism) is referred to as the ‘normal’ combustion process and people are of the mistaken opinion, that it gives rise to those carrying, shifting and orienting forces that move and animate our bodies. This ‘normal’ process of combustion, whose dynamic product Nature uses to break down, decompose and eliminate the evolutionary unfit, is triggered in such a way that at about +40 degrees Celsius (+104 degrees Fahrenheit ) through the application of heat or fire, the oxygen becomes aggressive and belligerent. If it is heated further, then it becomes even freer and more dangerous, leading to the decomposition of blood, water and sap. At this point all life-functions of whatever kind cease in all growing, living and autonomously moving things…Viktor Schauberger’s approach, as we shall see, is quite different.
The invention (The Repulsine) makes use of the fact that the presence of certain substances, especially metals such as copper, silver or gold, for example, or those substances collectively termed synthetic resins (plastics), which are decisive for the progress of the vital functions in liquids or gases (air) and whose effect can, in part, be described as oligodynamic (decay-producing effect, as envisioned by Schauberger). Therefore, if the said course of motion of the substances to be dissociated is also allowed to proceed “oligodynamically” , then the severing of the atomic bonds ca be successfully achieved to a large extent and considerable energies freed. These freed energies can readily be brought into new combinations, such as for the further development of the atoms of primary gaseous substances into liquid or even solid formations or these energies may be drawn of or diverted in some other way.
On this page, I will try to give you a possible explanation about the working principle of “the Repulsine“ flying saucer from Viktor Schauberger (1938-1957). Simply “click” on the image thumbnails for a larger view. This document is the synthesis of a fine analysis on pictures of real working devices, on Schauberger’s researches in vortexes (implosion principle) and on some technical papers from Henri Coanda (1886-1972) and Bernoulli’s principle. Page Four of this site will offer even more detail, and quite a number of surprises, as well.
NOTE: All of these inventions can be built, today. Once built, and implemented into the economy, they would spell and end for our dependence on fossil fuels, or more specifically, our dependence on an oil-based economy. Additionally, we have now begun a partnership between myself (Frank Germano), my former partners, Martin Dorantes, Guy Letourneau, Tad Johnson, Dr. Evgeni Sorokodum (from Vortex Oscillation Technology, LTD, Russia), Curt Hallburg (Institute of Ecological Technology, Krokegatan, Goteborg), and Kim Zorzi (from Ultra-Lite America). It is our aim to build a working Repulsine. If the historical and scientific facts are correct, this will mean the abolishment of our current fossil-fuel driven economy. Why? Because the Repulsine does not need an outside fuel source. It’s motive fuel is that of nature…
Read on to learn how it works.
An original picture-sketch of the Repulsine ( Left ) : A flying model of a Schauberger Repulsine, Type A, tested in January 1940.
This device has been built with copper and uses a very high speed motor for the main vortex turbine. The Repulsine Type “A” device is an Electro-Aero-Dynamic device (E.A.D.) and uses two effects :
1.) The Coanda Effect: a pure Aerodynamic effect based on the Bernoulli’s principle.
2.) The Electro-Dynamic effect : The high speed vortex in the “vortex chamber” produces an electric, charged separation effect, called “the diamagnetic effect ” by Schauberger.
These two effects, combined, create the so-called “implosion effect”.
Machines of Genius – The Repulsine, or “Flying Saucer” of Viktor Schauberger:
The following is taken from the Schauberger British and/or Austrian Patent Number 146,141 March 4th 1940, filed in Austria. The entire patent information can be found in Callum Coats book – “Energy Evolution” page 170-195. Additional comments, construction notes and design parameters by Frank Germano, Kim Zorzi & Mr. Robert James Bailey…
Two circular sheet metal plates made of silver-plated or amalgamated copper are press-formed in such a way that they are endowed with a waveform shape, and are superimposed on one another in such a way as to create a waveform, interstitial space. Both plates are maintained at a distance from one another by already known methods. The lower plate, is attached to the backing plates, which are insulated form one another by a hard rubber plate. On the upper plate, two, three, or more, cover plates are mounted in such a way that they initially rest on the wave-crests of such plate before gradually tapering downwards into the wave-troughs. In this way, the narrowing pressure-chambers are formed, whose longitudinal axes run parallel to the circumference. On the inner inclined surfaces of the upper plate, narrow slits are incised. The central component incorporates a spacer ring. Spacer rings, incorporating nozzles can be provided in the interstitial space. Furthermore, the hollow shaft opens into the cup-shaped component, whose inner surface is advantageously fluted, and which has exit openings into the interstitial space.
If the device is caused to rotate rapidly, then the liquid or gaseous substances entering the pressure-chambers will be impressed downwards and sideways through the slits, into the interstitial space, in which a considerable suction evolves, so that the space acts as a suction-chamber. The whole device therefore represents a kind of multi-stage centrifuge, each concentric wave being regarded as a stage. It can readily be understood that the liquid or gaseous substance present in the pressure-chamber, having been subjected to strong pressure forces here, immediately passes through the slits in the pressure-chamber walls and partially expands. At an appropriate rate of rotation, a maximum pressure will be reached, under which a bio-electric energy evolves, with whose aid, the primary combinations of the through-flowing liquid, or gaseous substance, will split up, whereupon these freed energies can be synthesized into any desired form or be drawn off.
As material for the two plates, silver-plated or amalgamated gold, or synthetic resins (plastics) can be used. If plastics are used, and seawater, for example, is impelled through the suction-chamber, an insipid fresh water is obtained as a result of this process. The arrangement can be so designed that like upper plate, the lower plate can also be provided with cover-plates, so that the pressure-chambers lie on both sides of the suction-space.
An original picture of the vortex turbine. The vortex area is in the middle. The vortex chamber has been removed. A front view of the “Repulsine Type B”, showing the primary hull and the vortex chamber. “The Repulsine Type B”, left. Again, “click” on any of the images for a full-size view.
When the main electric engine is started, the Coanda effect begins to create a differential aerodynamic pressure between the outer and the inner surface of the primary hull. At a higher speed, the vortex chamber becomes a kind of high electrostatic generator due to the air particles, in high speed motion, acting as an electrical charge transporter. The Repulsine will begin to glow due to the strong ionization effect of the air. Now, we have all the ingredients for a continuous and strong Aether Flow along the main axis from the top to the bottom of the craft…The radial air pressure required for lifting 1kg with the Coanda Effect is about 1,4 kg/cm2
In the “Repulsine Type B” the vortex turbine has been improved for increasing the “Implosion Effect” and thus the lifting force, so you will find below a possible explanation about the working principle of theRepulsine type B flying saucer from Viktor Schauberger. The upper membrane is fixed and the lower rotates at high speed. On the edge rim there are special shaped blades ( boomerang shaped blades ). There are 120 blades ( 3 degrees spaced ). The enhanced vortex turbine increases significantly the “implosion” effect in the vortex chamber. This contributes to it being able to generate a stronger thrust than the centrifugal turbine used in the “Repulsine type A”. By means of a suction screw-impeller, (which revolved from the outside towards the inside along a cycloid, spiral, space-curve), the same type of force is generated which creates twisters, cyclones, and typhoons, through the effect of suction, or implosion.
In 1941 several models had been built. One of them had a diameter of 2.4 meters with a small, ultra-high-speed, electric motor. A few moments after the device was started, it climbed straight up into the air so suddenly that, unfortunately, it hit the workshop ceiling with such force that it was destroyed, and crashed to the ground in pieces… For a historical look at Schauberger’s Repulsine and his forced workings for the Nazi Germany period, see Viktor Schauberger, page five, on this site. Click here: Viktor Schauberger during Nazi Germany .
Repulsine Type “A” left, and “B” right, side by side for comparison (click for larger view)
The implosion motor uses the suction forces of implosion; there is no heat barrier and no sound barrier, because with friction almost entirely lacking, no heat is generated. The air flows through the rotating air inlets, placed in the middle, and follows the gap between the double membranes (with the wave pattern). This creates a spiral contraction of the flowing medium and creates a vacuum which increases the “pull”, via implosion.The enhanced vortex turbine uses two flat membranes with concentric “rills” on it. A wave pattern has been set on the upper and on the lower membrane. The upper wave is slightly out of phase with the lower wave. This is a direct application of the “Coanda” effect. The air flow passes through small cavities where the volume sometimes is larger, and sometimes smaller, due to the difference in phase relationship between the upper and the lower membrane. When the air passes different cavities it starts to pulsate. The pulsations are directly dependant on the angular speed of the discs. This “push-pull” action creates an harmonic pulsation of energy…
To the Left is another picture of an original prototype showing the major components of the “Repulsine, type B” engine. The air, being drawn in from the top slits, is set into a spiral vortex movement. Schauberger had claimed that once the devise was set in motion, the primary motor could be switched off and the forces at work would power the generator, which was housed in a central location inside the craft. For more information on this, see references in the book, ” Energy Revolution “, below.
How it works: The “Repulsine” uses a cold-water injection between the bottom plates that alternately expands and contracts the air input by the principle of “thermodynamics” (example: as can be found between a cold-water reservoir and hot desert air). In Texas, a water pump is using this exact same effect. The Texas pump has a 200-gallon tank, which has a hot air intake valve on top and periodically withdraws warm air from the surrounding atmosphere. At the tank’s base, there is a single, shallow, well water pipe, which brings cold water into the tank. This effect is simple to demonstrate. The tank begins to rock on a central fulcrum and expels water from a long pipe centrifugally attached to one end of the tank. This oscillating pipe maintains a backpressure that prevents the water being pumped out from being drawn back inside the tank. Every 30 seconds, a new volume of hot external atmosphere is drawn into the tank and imploded. This causes a remarkable increase in the tanks oscillation. The oscillation is due to the intake water supply’s uneven internal distribution. In effect, the tank is gravity powered.
The Repulsine uses the same phenomena. Cold water, drawn through a base hole, is spun in between the two wavy impellers and cools the air inside the units’ shell. As this partial vacuum draws in the air, it is spun into a cyclone by intake fins. After the air is cooled and humidified, still spinning, it is then expelled from an upper turbine, which reacts with the exiting cyclone. This centrifugal air has so much angular momentum that it is able to leave the Repulsine, even against a strong internal vacuum. That is a direct analogy to the rocking tank implosion-based water pump, described above.
The hot, rising vapor, trapped in a snail-shaped chimney, is lighter then the surrounding dry air and adds to the suction on the Repulsine’s top. The upper turbine, spun by the exiting cyclones’ action, directly drives the internal wavy vaporizing discs, which atomize the cold intake water. The electric motor (used for starting purposes) only has one purpose, and that is to spin up the vaporizer so that it properly atomizes the cold water from the inlet hose. The power source is implosion of hot, dry, desert air.
Remember that the power source is the Thermal difference between cold ground water and hot, dry desert air , just as is done in the implosion tank-rocking water pump from Texas. There is no mystery here. This device does nothing but convert the energy present in the combination of cold ground water with hot dry atmosphere. That is how it actually works. In many ways, it is similar to Schauberger’s water turbine, which also uses a pulsed pressure reservoir. I have worked extensively on both designs. Keep in mind that without the cold-water input, the pulsating vacuum trapped inside the Repulsine soon diminishes and stops. There is a lot of mystery behind this device.
To quote verbatim on what Schauberger said:
“ I connected the implosion motor to an outdoor water tap and it began to spin and finally took off, powered off of nothing more then ordinary, cold, tap water.”
If you look at the Repulsine, you will find a water pipe beneath, sticking out to the side. Schauberger was a master of water implosion technology. It is possible to cool air by simply pulling on a piston, but you require work to do that. At the same time, if you compressed air in a piston, it will get hot. That requires force over a distance or mechanical work to accomplish. You see; there is no gain! Simply expanding a piston and contracting it (or a vortex) accomplishes little more then creating a spring. We all know springs eventually stop bouncing. Schauberger’s expanding and contracting tornado also eventually ceases without an energy source. Recall the Hilsch-Rankine tube or Maxwell’s demon. The tube generates spiral airflow and creates hot air in the large tube and cold air -140F in the small diameter tube. In order to accomplish this, compressed air in large volumes must be used for its ability to do work. No free ride there. It is possible to make a vertical tube howl like a banshee, but the second the flame is removed from the tubes’ inside wall – the resonance stops. Again, it requires a defined energy source. That is Viktor Schauberger’s secret.
Consider this carefully: When the “rams horn arm”, the whorl-pipes of Viktor’s water turbine, approaches a valley (serrated ring at circumference of his turbine), warm chamber air is drawn inside the forming vortex pocket (that air is warm do to natural convection currents, which are of low density and hot at the top of chamber; high density, cold air at the chamber’s bottom). Now here is the earth shaker. As the now warm pocket of air is drawn into the whorl-pipe tip, it approaches a hill, and along the serrated edge, it closes the mouth of the whorl-pipe’s vortex. This collapses the air bubble since the water is cold in the arm (drawn from the cold basins’ bottom) and pulls the arm toward the hill by a low-pressure suction. Now, our induced vortex bubble is smaller and consists only of cold air. It must be released with the secondary spray issuing out the v-slot in the whorl-pipe’s tip. We have used the mechanical energy of the condensing warm air vortex bubble. The vortex also loses cohesion because its base flow is blocked, and this further assists the removal of water ( the “Pharaoh’s Pump” effect : this is an excellent website, by the way!).
Now our whorl-pipe inside Viktor’s water turbine swings to a new valley rim serration (and a new warm air pocket forms) and the implosion process starts all over again. The water turbine must absorb heat in this manner or stop spinning. The usefulness of a collapsed cooled vortex bubble is “finite”. That is why Schauberger’s rim is serrated. That is also why it appears to rotate in reverse (recall the egg in the bottle experiment). So where does Viktor Schauberger get his energy? It comes from natural thermal stratification found in any sun-warmed room that sits atop cold ground water. Nature constantly restores this balance. The basin water is denser than air and very cold at the bottom do to convection cells in his basin. That is the very water we draw up to operate his implosion arms. The upper room air is warm (also due to convection currents). The heat conducts into his shell easily. That is Viktor’s thermodynamic water and air secret. You can repeat the egg in the milk bottle experiment any time to see the suction involved.
Viktor’s device had a diamagnetic field do to the effect. Once he noticed that when sand is dragged along a streambed, it gives off piezio electric sparks. He was a most amazing man. According to Schauberger, a water and sand slurry was best for this charging effect. The Repulsine uses a cold water pipe to cool air in its chamber. But it is not absolutely required after spin-up. The shell becomes very hot as air is compressed from induced vertical updrafts surrounding the Repulsine. This vortex that forms above the Repulsine maintains its’ suction and continues to intake large quantities of atmosphere which is then cooled at the small base intake hole’s internal cyclone. In effect, the Repulsine, like Maxwell’s demon, separates the hot and cold air by conversion of external updraft momentum and uses it to draw more airflow to the Repulsine. Sailplanes are passive convection cell user’s…Viktor’s marvelous machine is active (!) – feeding back heat to enhance its own updraft. Where does the heat come from, as it is impossible to alter natural vertical flow without generating heat? That is simple momentum conversion. It heats itself!
It comes from the HILSCH-RANKINE tube effect. The shell gets very hot as the inside cools and implodes and the outside edge heats. You are actually pushing great quantities of air into the Repulsine, as well as forming suction above it. That is known as the “firestorm” effect. If you want to generate an updraft in a chimney you must warm it. The outer shell becomes very hot. The inside center cold. This creates a resonating flow effect. If this Repulsine did not oscillate between high and low pressure it would not intake as much air. That air can, by centrifugal compression at the shells’ rim, be directly converted into heat to maintain the effect. Look at the Hilsch-Rankine tube. It has the same exact effect. The mechanical flow of the external air (driven by natural solar convection currents) is a direct analogy to the compressed air used to drive the Hilsch-Rankine tube. The “Repulsine” is not internally powered. It is driven by external flow that is sub-ducted into its internal cyclone and generates a hot and cold region just as the Hilsch-Rankine tube does. The water and 1/20th horsepower motor is only used to start it.
I know that it is a lot to grasp. Viktor Schauberger, along with Nikola Tesla , Leonardo De Vinci, Galileo, Pythagoras, John Worrall Keely , Walter Russell , and a few select others (hey…I’m allowed my favorites!), was probably one of the smartest men that ever lived. It took me months to make the smallest discoveries in relation to his work. Be mindful of what I have told you about the water turbine and Repulsine, as it is all very easily verified. Remember, it uses an internal coolant and motor to start (1/20th horsepower) and external convection cells drawn into his base intake, which power his hot-and-cold producing, updraft-enhancing cyclone. The water turbine is powered off of the “milk bottle and the egg experiment”; warm air condensation pockets trapped inside his whorl-pipe arms. The atmosphere and convection cells from thermal density stratums – naturally present in a warm room over cold ground water – also power it, only passively.
I want to discuss the theory and the inherent hazards in building these devices. It is absolutely stupid to confine air in a chamber under centrifugal or static pressure without a certified mechanical engineer to test and verify the pressure vessel that you are experimenting with (water turbine & Repulsine). Seek out a qualified Mechanical Engineer – a P.E. – before attempting to build one of these devices! I am certain everyone is aware of the way a smoke ring is created. What is a smoke ring? It is a puff of swirling vortex, created as air is forcefully driven from a hole, which creates a low-pressure torus at its center, holding the external vortex into a coherent unit. That, in effect, is a type of flywheel. In physics lectures, a professor will place a solid wooden box on a table, and behind it, a strong rubber diaphragm. In the front and middle is an aperture that induces the smoke ring. This apparatus is found in “Physics Demonstration Experiments” volumes 1 & 2…It’s a tan hardcover, large book. Another term is Hemholtz ring. This ring has very important significance to the “Repulsine”, as it is yet another sign of Viktor Schauberger’s genius. Now, exactly why does Viktor use those concentric rings? This has caused far too much speculation over the years. The center of Viktor’s Repulsine is a hole at the bottom that admits the hot, rising desert air (induced from the external updraft formed around the Repulsine when in operation).
Seeing this base hole in a diagram, we now must understand its purpose. If we simply spun a centrifugal turbine in the base of our Repulsine it will heat up at the rim shell. That is do to compression of air and is agreed upon by engineers the world over. Viktor went a step further in order to remove the turbulence. He did a rather brilliant thing. He induced (by imploring all of the concentric plates) a “smoke ring” or “Hemholtz” ring. In simple terms, the air enters the Repulsine as a large smoke ring. We must be careful here. The end result is that that smoke ring snakes around inside the concentric plates and becomes smaller and smaller in its toroidial diameter. That is the measure of the rings smallest diameter, not the measure of the entire ring, only the thickness of the smoke ring. These rings are blown in at the center and assist the magnetic plates oscillation as they spread out. Think of a pebble thrown into a pond and disturbing the water (ripples are produced. They are actually a simple waveform effect, but we won’t get into that on this page). Viktor often used natural examples.
As the smoke ring spreads out, trapped between those wavy rings (use the pebble in the pond ripple analogy) the ring becomes extremely small at its smallest diameter.
Viktor Schauberger said from the beginning: “if you want to generate heat you must compress a vortex.”
I realize it is called an implosion motor. It does implode atmosphere, but the purpose is not what people think. The purpose is similar to a baseball thrown very fast. You are throwing these smoke rings at the walls of the Repulsine. As these condensed smoke rings strike the inside of the outer shell, they deliver great heat. That heat then contributes to the external updraft, driven by suction, to the top exhaust propeller (the one with the curved blades, which in turn rotates the bottom intake smoke ring accelerator). There is nothing new here. We take in these rings of spinning air one at a time (artillery pieces produce them every day at military bases). That wavy plate pushes the ring to the outer shell and condenses it so that it heats by contracting it smaller and smaller. If we did not do this, our “Repulsine” would be less efficient. Each torus, or ring, of spinning air, is, in fact, a small flywheel containing great energy. As that “flywheel” strikes the outer shell (this is all internal physics, I am not referring to any external air flow effect), the ring is destroyed and liberates great heat. Note: In a physics lecture demonstration, there is always a doubter. It is recommended that the Repulsine experimenter build a simple smoke ring chamber as listed in the “Physics Demonstration Experiments” text. You will find that a smoke ring (it actually requires no smoke and is a lay term) can transport a large quantity of energy.
So the purpose of those wavy discs in the base of our Repulsine is, and has always been, to accelerate intake-formed smoke rings. As they expand to the rim, they contract forcefully and gain definition. They then impact the inner wall of the outer shell, heating it enough to induce a strong external updraft, (as does a campfire). This feeds back still more energy to the upper exhaust turbine that is assisted by a rising dust-devil formed above the Repulsine. Victor Schauberger never used an inefficient technique. A simple centrifugal plate as is seen on standard tank-type vacuum cleaner chops the intake air into millions of pieces.
By retaining the coherence of the intake air (remember this is an inverse ring effect, as if using the physics demonstration ring box in reverse). Viktor gains the maximum energy release from his rings as they strike the inner wall and deliver their heat load as the ring is destroyed. A simple centrifugal compressor plate destroys the entering smoke ring shape. This causes turbulence and interferes with additional intake flow. Viktor takes in one vortex, or smoke ring, at a time. This orderly process insures an endless procession of rings into his implosion shell. It pulsates as each new ring is formed. The main point is that it is very orderly . It interacts only in the most stable way with the “wavy” or vortex-ring accelerator plates. The wavy plates, in effect, spread and contract into a very small thickness diameter the entering ring. It looks like a wave spreading in a pond after a stone is thrown into the middle. One final time; the purpose of those discs is to take the intake vortex rings and contract them so their thickness is reduced and increase there overall diameter until they strike the shell wall and liberate (like a flywheel) a great deal ofheat (that feeds the external updraft or “firestorm” effect. Thinking of a common desert dust-devil is another way of looking at it.
Let me try putting this another way. It is difficult to explain the fluid dynamics that are involved here. Viktor cooled warm air in his water turbine arm to contract the vortex bubble against a serrated hill on its rim. That transferred heat to the water vortex that was exiting the whorl-pipe. It is no different in the “Repulsine” case. In this case, the vortex is in the form of a ring , instead of a long finger, as in the water turbine spray arm (whorl-pipe tip). The vortex begins to cool inside the Repulsine and contracts its tornado shell around it as its thickness diameter decreases rapidly. That increases the speed of the ring vortex itself. This liberates a great deal of heat to the shell. I know how difficult this is to understand. If we use the brilliant research of the “Pharaoh’s Pump Group” (note: this link may be broken!) , we find that water can spin around a core of air until it reaches a great depth. Then, the spinning water is destroyed, and the air inside is highly compressed. The Pharaoh’s Water Pump surrounds air with a vortex and drops it to a lower elevation and then, collapses the water vortex around the air and liberates it as compressed air. Study this carefully. (Better yet; study the Pharaohs Pump website from the link above. Then come back to this page and continue. Note: they produce their own book…you can only get the book through their website, as it’s not available from AMAZON.COM, Borders, or Barnes & Noble Books. Too bad.)
To continue; Viktor’s Repulsine does the same thing. The intake smoke-ring then contracts, due to its own cooling. Place a hot smoke ring into cold air (as is found inside Viktor’s implosion motor). That ring will begin to contract, but, as it contracts , it increases its rotation velocity. That in turn increases its impact energy at the shell wall. Viktor intakes a large vortex ring that is composed of hot, swirling air. That ring is cooled inside the implosion motor by the contraction discs or wavy-plate discs. As the ring is cooled, it shrinks to its smallest diameter or thickness, which greatly increases its toroidial rotation velocity, or vortex-ring tornado velocity. Now the ring widens in its overall diameter and strikes the shell wall with great energy. Remember; velocity equates to friction. A supersonic jet has very hot skin from air friction (hundreds of degrees Fahrenheit). So Viktor’s implosion motor literally intakes little ring tornadoes that cool inside his wavy disc chamber and therefore contract and spin even faster, perpendicular to their toroidial center circle line.
The Schauberger Repulsine literally “absorbs” little baby tornado rings, and uses their high velocity to generate internal hull friction , which assists the external updraft. Exactly how do we make a tornado in nature? First, we bring cold air from, let’s say, Canada. Then we bring up warm Gulf air from the United States. The warm Gulf air collides with the cool Canadian or Arctic air. The warm Gulf air is now “sandwiched” inside a rolling column of cold arctic air. This causes the internal warm air to contract violently as the heat exchanges from the interaction of the surrounding cold Arctic air. We now have a dangerous energy sandwich. The internal trapped Gulf warm air quickly contracts as it liberates heat to the surrounding cold Arctic air vortex (recall the water turbine arm). This greatly accelerates the vortex velocity. An analogy would be as an ice skating ballerina pulls in her arms, she spins much faster. That requires mechanical force (in her case; muscle) that force is a direct resultant of the thermo mechanical internal air contraction do to rapid cooling.
Viktor does the exact same thing in both his Repulsine and water turbine. In the Implosion Motor , it takes the form of a ring vortex spreading out to the external shell. In the water turbine, it takes the form of finger like filament that stops at the center. It is exactly what Viktor told us all along. Viktor Schauberger paved the way as he showed us how to extract energy from a cooling vortex. It is all in the cooling vortex and its ability to be harnessed as high velocity wind friction source. The ring inside Viktor’s Implosion Motor is hot on the inside and cold on the outside. That is why it contracts so violently. The vortex in the HILSCH-RANKINE TUBE is the exact opposite. The Hilsch-Rankine tube uses mechanical energy from compressed air to create one of these vortex strands. As its core expands, it cools and heat goes to the outer shell of the H-R tube do to wall friction and compression. . We use just the opposite of this effect to turn a warm air core vortex with a cold external core into compressed air as the vortex collapses. The H-R tube expands air by slowing the incoming airflow. That requires mechanical work from the compressed air source. It takes mechanical energy to pull air at its center apart by vacuum induction. The Schauberger implosion motor vortex package is warm at its center and cold at its out side and therefore contracts forming a small ribbon of compressed air that heats the hull.
So all Viktor did was use a Hilsch-Rankine tube in reverse! Instead of wasting compressed air, he actually generated it. Compressed air then drives the upper exhaust turbine, and heats the hull. “Brilliant” would hardly seem an appropriate word for Schauberger’s insight and achievement, and, it starts leading us into the energy future. There is no free energy here, only simple thermodynamics…. and hot and cold atmospheric convection flows. That is how he did it. After looking at independent sources to see if we were on the right track, Kim Zorzi sent me this update via email which confirmed our initial thoughts:
[ from Kim Zorzi, Ultralight America; ULAmerica @ aol dot com
Hope you are doing well these days. I thought I would give you a buzz to let you know I’m still alive and kicking. I’m still working on the designs of the wave plate for my new air vehicle. I have discovered many things about the wave plates. I continue to research the chemistry aspect, and the math calculations regarding temperature and pressure in a rotational environment. I believe I have finally figured out after a year of reading why this device runs on its own power. The water injection, which causes the acceleration to increase causes an endothermic reaction to happen in between the wave plates and this endothermic reaction between the hot and cold molecules will cause an expansion of pressure to develop in this rotational vacuum celestial area which when jetted out at the outside diameter of the wave plate thru a very small orifice creates a high velocity of air. If this high velocity of air is bounced off of a small turbine blade surrounding the o.d. of the wave plate than the force applied will spin the wave plate faster, much like a squirter attached to the end of a water hose.
The repulsion energy happens when the inside rotational pressure starts compressing the remaining heated air molecules into an thru such a tiny orifice (.04) clearance, then the air molecules get squashed down to their repulsion state and pass thru the orifice. The repulsion energy creates another pressurized environment inside the accelerator housing (around 32 atm) and when jetted out over the bowl creates the Coanda effect. But the air molecule being emitted is a cross between hydrogen and helium. This molecule when ejected at a swirling velocity out of the accelerator housing encircles the vehicle. This very light air molecule has an upward velocity of 3700 mph once released. This is what causes the cyclonic reaction to happen above the vehicle in which it is sucked up in its wake. The heavy side of this is that this light air molecule is very explosive and if you make a high column of air a mile high of this molecule and it is touched off by a spark it could cause a horrific explosion.” ]
How to build a Schauberger Repulsine:
Before we begin with construction of the Repulsine, this is what can happen if careful research and proper assembly, along with using quality materials for construction is not followed and adhered to:
- One: the Repulsine will shred its upper power turbine! That turbine spins at a very high rpm and can, if formed from cast metal, shatter without warning.
- Two: the internal thermal zone separator (wavy discs) and mechanical fluid work transmitter can shatter, as it is hollow (I will explain) and flexible and is also not capable of withstanding high centrifugal stress do to its perforated construction and wavy design. It generally will shatter first.
- Three: the casing of the Repulsine is formed of copper in one device (although steel can be used) as this is for heat conduction. Copper is a brittle metal under repeated stress and can crack easily. Once again, shards will be expelled onto any unprepared researcher.
- Four: it is capable of high temperature’s (I will explain). It can scorch and burn its surroundings or a careless researcher. That temperature can easily reach 300 to 500 degrees F.
- Five: it can explode if its internal vortex is suddenly quenched, venting super heated air onto any nearby observers.
- Six: it must be grounded. It is best operated over hot pavement (I will explain). There is no simple way to describe its power level. It is cyclic and similar to a child’s top being spun faster and faster. It can, by a very strong suction force (as it sits in the middle of a much larger external vortex) be wrenched from the ground.
- Seven: it can effect the external environment. It is highly recommended any researcher using it should precede to an area with no air or automobile traffic.
- Eight: it can set fire to any dry brush present. It must be operated in a rock quarry or concrete industrial area for maximum fire safety with a fire extinguisher standing by.
- Nine: it is difficult to gain the approval of a mechanical engineer with an unproved technology; however, he or she can still verify that every precaution has been taken. The vessel is subject to high internal winds approaching 100 to 300 mph; never underestimate the harm that wind can do. That wind can amount to several static pounds pressure per square inch. It is the escaping wind that is most dangerous.
- Ten: as air is ionized around the Repulsine, it can produce dangerous electrical phenomena. That is due to dust particle charging. Anytime air passes a chamber that is not grounded, at high speed it can induce charged particles! Be prepared for static electric build up if operating in a dry environment. See below for further information regarding safety issues.
A small Repulsine can easily produce 10 to 25 horsepower; a large one, in the ten to twenty foot diameter ranges, can produce well into the thousands of horsepower. This is due to its power concentrating effect. It is in a category of windmills known as dynamic flow enhancers. That is to say its passive wind flow ratting is small and no more then any similar Darrius or Savonious type. However, once the work function has begun, it can concentrate external flow from 2 times, up to 10 times. That is, it will generate the equivalent power level of a machine ten times its own size. This is similar to windmills of the “diffusion cone” type. That refers specifically to a windmill that has a large external diffuser or cone that assists in flow pressure concentration allowing even a small turbine to generate far more then its diameter is capable of without the added diffusion cone to create a down wind low pressure pocket.
The Repulsine consists of a few major parts. It has a top cone or chimney that, like the rest of the shell, must be constructed of heat conductive metal. Viktor wanted this top cone to be shaped like an elongated snail-shell. This is so external wind, in the form of a dust-devil, can enter the cone and assist the upper drive turbine’s rotation. I have found it best to use materials similar to the steel chimney pipes found in wood stove connection joints (a light steel sheet formed into a cone and riveted so that there is no turbulence on the inside of this upper chimney cone). That is the simplest part to fabricate. The taller it is; the better. It should have at least twice to five times the height of the primary plenum chamber; its upper outlet diameter is still debatable. I recommend looking at Schauberger’s water turbine arms and using that as a conical ratio. If a small aperture overly restricts the upper chimney, the flow will quench. If an oversized exit hole is used, the flow will receive too much horizontal ground wind turbulence backflow. The dynamics problem of the horizontal flow as it interferes with the vertical convection flow produced cannot be underestimated. That is the bane of all wind generator engineers who have attempted to produce energy by concentrating convection flow. That is, the horizontal wind will antagonize your Repulsine unless it has its upper cone intake aperture or snail-shell mouth directly pointed into the apparent horizontal wind. Wind is variable; it can change direction without warning, so keeping the upper snail-shell pointed can be a frustrating chore. You cannot place a guidance fin to keep the snail-shell mouth pointed, since that will break up the induced flow of the external dust-devil vortex.
Viktor simply ignored the snail-shell all together and only punched a few inlet and outlet holes in a simple conic upper chimney shell. That is not to say it is un-important. He simply could not get the correct shape fabricated. The upper chimney focuses the exhaust vortex leaving the Repulsine drive turbine. Now you have the fabrication of the upper drive turbine. That turbine must be mounted on a shaft (if using a 22-inch unit) capable of at least 10 horsepower minimal load. Shafts of this type are found on all small engines in that horsepower range. One-inch diameter shafts will ensure maximum safety. Obviously, the bearing must be of a reliable type. I recommend from personal experience the bearings used in racing go-carts wheel shafts. They have a 3-bolt mounting cup, and are very reliable.
The upper plate can be found on old centrifugal blowers. Yes, Schauberger’s design used multiple curves, but that is not set in stone. The cooling fins found on a two-cycle motor or lawn mower head can be substituted in a pinch. The plate from the centrifugal blower of a ruined engine can be used for the exhaust drive turbine. The air coming out is cyclonic so the plate is used in a reversed fin rotation. That is fairly obvious to any one building one…this plate cannot be constructed from plastics. It will melt! I realize plastic is safer and easier to fabricate however it is also worthless in a Repulsine exhaust turbine. Next, you require the shell. That shell is fabricated from a 22-inch diameter Barbecue Kettle lid piece. It has a flat region that is cut out for the upper exhaust hole. The exact plenum exhaust hole size on a unit is critical. Once again, if it is too large, the shell heat won’t build to a high temperature. Too small, and it will vent waste centrifugal air poorly and shut down the unit. Use Viktor’s photos. My ideal exhaust hole is 12 inches in diameter with a 22-inch plenum shell. I am still experimenting on the best diameter exhaust turbine.
The Repulsine has need of two active parts; the upper exhaust turbine (or reversed centrifuge blower plate) and the inner wavy discs (that use the mechanical work from the upper turbine). Theses discs are not easy to fabricate. The best material I can find is used in fireplace screening and perforated. You must locate a source of perforated steel. That perforation is to allow airflow through the wavy discs, which also prevents back conduction of heat from the outer shell or rim region (I will explain). It will be found that Hammel, used a perforated metal cone on his devices. That is the type of shell you are after. Perforating a steel sheet of that thickness with thousands of holes is difficult and imprecise. If you place too many perforations in one area, the disc may shatter!
Why do it at all? Recall that I spoke of the H-R tube. Those wavy discs serve to conduct vortex strands and transmit mechanical energy to the internal plenum chamber vortex from the upper exhaust turbine. They cannot be underestimated. They are the Repulsine …Think of the drive exhaust turbine as a simple windmill. Updrafts and convection currents power it. It is also driven off of any horizontal flow that is swirled into the upper chimney shell snail shell mouth. That is all it does! It uses waste exhaust to spin that is given maximum pressure advantage from the suction above it in the upper chimney shell vortex. There are three vortexes at work here!
- One, is the external shell heat vortex or outer dust-devil,
- Two, is the vortex in the upper snail shaped chimney shell,
- Three, is the mechanical work vortex inside the “Repulsine” plenum or H-R tube vortex,
The novice experimenter should examine carefully the work done by vortex Wind Engineers on the web. The entire upper part of the unit is already in use at many wind turbine-generating sites! Assuming you have successfully fabricated the exhaust turbine and mounted it in a typical tri-arm mount, flush with your plenum shell, and mounted the two opposed perforated wavy discs on the long drive shaft, you now require a base shell. This shell must be as strong or stronger then the upper shell. It can be flat and still function. If it is flat steel it must be reinforced. It is always best to use shaped steel that is self-integrated structurally due to its own 3-dimensional form. For example, it can also have a wave ring shape. That is far more rigid then a simple flat piece. That is yet another reason the wavy discs are curved so they are rigid when the Repulsine tilts or lifts.
This is then bolted and sealed to the upper shell. This is critical. The outer rim is subject to great pressure and heat. The bottom hole is smaller then the exhaust hole, however the relative surface area is comparable. This is because a great deal of the upper exhaust turbine plate is sealed with only a small exit region open at its circumference. The bottom shaft bearing can be tri-arm mounted as well. These hole-sizes are critical. If the bottom axle area intake hole is too small, it will not take in enough air! The exact diameter, as compared to the upper exhaust hole is still a matter of experimentation. It is between 4 and 6 inches in diameter. In other words, its diameter in surface area approximates the exhaust outlet surface area. The entire assembly is best placed on yet another Barbecue Kettle piece – the bottom hemisphere. In this use, it is placed round side up (that is its rim on the ground). Several metal posts now go to your bottom plenum. The plenum or H-R work chamber is mounted 6 to 12 inches above the inverted kettle hemisphere. Those posts will later have metal fins on them, which will be twisted to guide air into the single intake hole, placed concentric with the drive shaft.
Now, with all in place, you can do a first spin test. Instead of an attached motor, you can use the pressure exhaust of a large tank-type vacuum cleaner. It requires precise aim. Place the hose near the exhaust turbine and push air against the curved blades the same direction the air is meant to leave the plenum chamber. This is a simple reaction effect. The snail-shell hole is more then large enough for you to place the start-up air jet. Recall that model pulsejets were actually started with a bicycle pump. Now your unit is spinning! What happens next? Usually, very little will happen. It will spin of course, but, until the exact exhaust ratio and intake ratio is found, you can expect no miracles. The bearing races must be low-friction units. If you do it correctly, the unit will begin to heat up at its plenum shell circumference. Why (?) – because the internal wavy perforated discs and compressions on the shell rim are spinning air centrifugally. That can be seen directly by touching the top of any large-tank vacuum cleaner with a metal flange head. In fact all centrifugal air compressors or high pressure fans heat in this manner. Inside the plenum, the air is being separated into a center, or axle region, cold-zone and outer rim region hot-zone. Mechanical work from the upper exhaust disc is being used to separate these temperature regions. This effect is no different than is seen on the H-R tube! The only difference is that air is being spun on the unit by frictional interaction with the wavy disc set. In the H-R tube, it is from the mechanical energy, released as compressed air, and is swirled into a vortex tube. The exact same thermal separation occurs. The inner region is cold, and outer region is hot. That heat now contributes to a rising updraft vortex about the Repulsine. Recall in a calorimeter experiment, paddles are spun to heat water in a closed shell . One experiment is to then spray water at various temperatures into the shell. If it is done properly, it will assist in imploding the center cold air mass and greatly increasing the RPM. of the turbine. This is a science experiment of a lifetime.
Why does it work? As the work being done on the Repulsine internal plenum increases from the exhaust turbine drive shaft, the steel shell reaches a critical temperature level. At that point the rim air approaches several hundred degrees. The wavy discs prevent heat from easily moving from the rim to the center (that is one reason they are perforated and cannot be solid). The plenum will begin to alternately heat and cool as new air is drawn in at its base. If its core air trapped in between the wavy discs is cooled, the plenum velocity will increase. If it is heated by intake air, the velocity will slow. This effect is resonant and typical of the Repulsine operation. It is very hard to explain. Viktor claims, that any time you allow the core air of his Repulsine to heat and expand, it pulls the internal vortex wider apart! Next, as you intake cooler air, it snaps back together again. This is a phenomenon of thermo-mechanical resonance. Tesla coils use the very same principle.
The point is that your plenum will be driven off of induced external updrafts (as if a campfire) and off of a resonance caused by changes in the core vortex temperature! That is to say, the plenum chamber is like a child’s top. Any temperature change will cause the internal vortex (a vertical axis vortex centered about the drive axle) to expand and contract. The temperature changes must work in resonant fashion. Think of the child’s top being spun faster and faster, as they plunge its push rod up and down. This resonant expanding and contracting vortex bounces off the wavy rings much as ball bounces on a floor. Each time a little more energy is added. It is like stretching and contracting a rubber band around your fingers. When thermal mechanical vortex resonance is achieved, the implosion motor takes off. This is not an out-dated centrifugal air compressor. It is a chamber where any intake air is being converted into rotary motion. As the air vortex enlarges, it strikes the rim and cools. This causes it to bounce and return like a wave, to the center of the chamber (much like an echo reflecting off a hard surface). This compresses the center cold air and heats it, causing the wave front to once more expand.
That is why the wavy perforated discs are so important. They guide this echoing vortex band as it bounces from the rim to center and back again. To see what Schauberger saw, go to a circular water bath or tank (it must be a perfect circle). Put a Styrofoam disc at its center with a stick attached. Start to resonantly plunge the disk up and down. If you time it right, the wave crest will work with your plunges in harmony, as it bounces off the tank’s wall. This is exactly why those disks are wavy and perforated. They allow the vortex bounces to build up energy. Yes, you can argue that it wastes power. Actually it does not. The heat leaving the rim feeds back into the exhaust turbine updraft. You are amplifying this echo effect. Now the skeptic will begin to squirm in their seat. What good is this resonance effect? Sure, a Tesla coil makes a big spark, but that uses up electrical power even at high Q.
What makes a two-cycle motorcycle tail pipe exhaust expansion chamber work? Echo! That is correct. The principle that helps back pressure a two-cycle motorcycle engine is the exact same principle that feeds back energy in a Schauberger Repulsine implosion motor. It makes no difference. We can get mechanical work either way! A Sterling engine obtains mechanical work on both its cold cycle and hot cycle! We now have two defined reservoirs; a cold rim reservoir and a hot central intake reservoir . These reservoirs are maintained by external wind and sunlight. This is not a guess; it is a fact! A Stirling engine uses a displacer to shuttle an air mass between a hot and cold reservoir! Go to the fine Japanese Stirling engine pages found all over the web and you will soon understand this principle.
In the Repulsine, it is accomplished by the natural vortex echo inside of the chamber. This echo builds up our RPM. That is why the wavy discs are perforated. They must help spin the vortex but never stop its wave front echo. Think of that as a natural air displacer. Striking the rim cools the vortex and reaching the center heats it. The center bottom is hot from intake air ramming. Think of it this way before you stop reading this material. The echo bounce places our vortex over the center and then the rim region. That takes the place of the Stirling engine displacer. The vortex acts like a flywheel that stores the bounce energy. In effect, it is a simple Stirling engine hybrid that uses the expanding and contracting vortex as both a piston and a displacer, at the same time.
This is not difficult to understand. The Schauberger Repulsine is a new class of Stirling, atmospheric-feedback, hot-air motor. Schauberger’s genius removed the complex piston and displacer . They are replaced by a bouncing and expanding vortex and contracting vortex ring. If the reader takes away nothing more about the “Repulsine”, consider the following. IT is not a centrifugal air compressor. It is a new class of Stirling hot air engine, that converts a captive vortex into a piston and displacer that therefore shuttles between a hot center region, and a cold outer shell. This vortex also forms the Stirling Engine hybrid’s flywheel. In one simple gesture, Viktor removed the flywheel – the displacer and the piston – of a Stirling hot air engine – its closest thermo-mechanical cousin. By combining all of these elements, he simplified the Stirling engine, and, allowed it to directly feed back energy to an updraft. In other words, its own waste heat assists in increasing a natural external flow. No Stirling engine does that!
A final purpose of the wavy internal discs is to help “bounce” the vortex. It is similar to the 90-degree phase drive rod that activates the displacer. It forces the vortex wall back out to the rim. I realize that I said the rim is hot and it is. That is because it is constantly relieving itself of heat from the internal bouncing vortex. It is also cooled by the swirling external vortex. Without that, it is no longer a useful reservoir. In effect we have discovered a dynamic feedback Stirling Engine suited to extracting energy from a stationary external tornadic convection cell. This is not free energy…but I feel it is neglected physics. Only time and a little faith in Schauberger’s genius and commitment to relieving the suffering of mankind will tell.
In the “Phillips Technical Review Notes” we found references to an Air Core Betatron containing only a few kilograms of active magnetic flux material. That is to say the Phillips engineers had found a way to avoid the entire heavy iron superstructure used on a Betatron. It relied instead, like a Tesla coil, on resonance in heavy cables . To add, therefore to the list of things to avoid when constructing a Repulsine, I must now in all fairness add the Air Core Betatron effect. This means very simply, your Repulsine is capable of hard X-ray production from an internal current imploded with the thermo-mechanical rim resonance vortex bounce. To put it simply; the Repulsine at full resonance is a radiation source. It is possible that 50 thousand to 10 million electron volt-level radiation by-products, in the form of hard X-rays, will be present during operation. Any time you contract a charged electron cloud so that its magnetic field is cut, you can, and will accelerate electrons in the defined nature of a Betatron Particle Accelerator! It can and will emit high-energy particle radiation of the class known as High Energy Electrons and Hard X-rays. The Phillips’ Air Core Betatron proves a large ferromagnetic induction mass is not required for electron volt energy levels up to 9 MEV. Prolonged X-ray exposure is a certified tissue destroying process. For those “would’be” Nuclear Physicists out there, any doubts that the Repulsine is capable of Betatron particle acceleration will be quashed after reading about the “Phillips T.R. papers on their 9 MEV “Air Core Betatron””.
The final piece of the puzzle; The Repulsine’s rim is resonantly cooled by thermally induced downdraft feedback, as the internal plenum flow expands for its re-coil or implosion echo. It is a surface effect. Hot internal centrifugal air induces a cold downdraft pulse that is in effect the capacitive analogy to our thermo-mechanical vortex resonance, taking place in the unit. Hot always attracts cold …remember that! The Repulsine is unpredictable and dangerous, and, in an evacuated condition, is capable of Hard X-ray production. It is NOT a toy. It is best left in the hands of certified engineers and physicists!
My compliments and thanks to Mr. Robert (James) Bailey for his support, research data, notes and insight regarding construction of the working Repulsine model. The information that Mr. Bailey provided was absolutely invaluable in the compiling and research regarding construction and operation of a true Schauberger Repulsine. A heart felt “thank you” from all of us at ITP & GET. Also my unending respect and gratitude to Mr. Callum Coats, and Mr. Alick Bartholomew, (authors, publishers and writers) without whose work none of this website (or anything regarding Schauberger!) would be possible.